Social philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) found worldwide fame by promising to provide a systematic and complete scientific account of human reality, culminating in a moral code oriented around the principle of equal freedom. Although his attempted proof of this principle is fundamentally flawed, it is possible to remove its defects and make Spencer’s moral theory viable.

George Bragues is professor and program head of business at the University of Guelph-Humber in Toronto.
Culture and SocietyEconomistsEconomyPhilosophy and Religion
Other Independent Review articles by George Bragues
Summer 2020 Science and the Good: The Tragic Quest for the Foundations of Morality
Winter 2011/12 Portugal’s Plight: The Role of Social Democracy
Fall 2009 You and the State: A Fairly Brief Introduction to Political Philosophy
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