Dear President George W. Bush and All Members of Congress:

People from around the world are drawn to America for its promise of freedom and opportunity. That promise has been fulfilled for the tens of millions of immigrants who came here in the twentieth century.

Throughout our history as an immigrant nation, those who were already here have worried about the impact of newcomers. Yet, over time, immigrants have become part of a richer America, richer both economically and culturally. The current debate over immigration is a healthy part of a democratic society, but as economists and other social scientists we are concerned that some of the fundamental economics of immigration are too often obscured by misguided commentary.

Overall, immigration has been a net gain for American citizens, though a modest one in proportion to the size of our 13 trillion-dollar economy.

Immigrants do not take American jobs. The American economy can create as many jobs as there are workers willing to work so long as labor markets remain free, flexible and open to all workers on an equal basis.

In recent decades, immigration of low-skilled workers may have lowered the wages of domestic low-skilled workers, but the effect is likely to have been small, with estimates of wage reductions for high-school dropouts ranging from eight percent to as little as zero percent.

While a small percentage of native-born Americans may be harmed by immigration, vastly more Americans benefit from the contributions that immigrants make to our economy, including lower consumer prices. As with trade in goods and services, the gains from immigration outweigh the losses. The effect of all immigration on low-skilled workers is very likely positive as many immigrants bring skills, capital and entrepreneurship to the American economy.

Legitimate concerns about the impact of immigration on the poorest Americans should not be addressed by penalizing even poorer immigrants. Instead, we should promote policies, such as improving our education system, that enable Americans to be more productive with high-wage skills.

We must not forget that the gains to immigrants coming to the United States are immense. Immigration is the greatest anti-poverty program ever devised. The American dream is a reality for many immigrants who not only increase their own living standards but who also send billions of dollars of their money back to their families in their home countries—a form of truly effective foreign aid.

America is a generous and open country and these qualities make America a beacon to the world. We should not let exaggerated fears dim that beacon.

American Signatories top^

Jeffery Abarbanell, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Jason Abrevaya, Purdue University
Richard Adelstein, Wesleyan University
William P. Albrecht, University of Iowa
Michael V. Alexeev, Indiana University
Bruce T. Allen, Michigan State University
Richard A. Almeida, Southeast Missouri State University
Lee J. Alston, University of Colorado, Boulder
Santosh Anagol, Yale University
Gary M. Anderson, California State University, Northridge
Michael Anderson, Washington and Lee University
Robert M. Anderson, University of California, Berkeley
James E. Anderson, Boston College
Robert Warren Anderson, George Mason University
William L. Anderson, Frostburg State University
Dominick T. Armentano, University of Hartford
Richard Arnott, Boston College
Pierre Azoulay, Columbia University
Howard Baetjer, Jr., Towson University
Dean Baim, Pepperdine University
David Balan, Economist
A. Paul Ballantyne, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
Owen Barder, Center for Global Development
Frank M. Bass, University of Texas, Dallas
Jonathan J. Bean, Southern Illinois University
Peter M. Beattie, Michigan State University
Scott Beaulier, Mercer University
John H. Beck, Gonzaga University
Stacie Beck, University of Delaware
Steven R. Beckman, University of Colorado, Denver
David T. Beito, University of Alabama
Jere R. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania
Donald M. Bellante, University of South Florida
Daniel K. Benjamin, Clemson University
Bruce L. Benson, Florida State University
George S Berger, University of Pittsburgh, Johnstown
Ernst R. Berndt, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
David Berri, California State University, Bakersfield
Alberto Bisin, New York University
Linda J. Bilmes, Harvard University
Greg Blankenship, Illinois Policy Institute
Alan S. Blinder, Princeton University
Barry Boardman, Chief Economist, Kentucky Legislature
Alan E. Boese, Virginia State University
Peter J. Boettke, George Mason University
Elizabeth C. Bogan, Princeton University
Cecil E. Bohanon, Ball State University
Ben W. Bolch, Rhodes College
James E. Bond, Seattle University
Robert A. Book, Independent Economist
Thomas E. Borcherding, Claremont Graduate University
Michael D. Bordo, Rutgers University
Donald Boudreaux, George Mason University
Scott Bradford, Brigham Young University
Ryan R. Brady, United States Naval Academy
Serguey Braguinsky, State University of New York, Buffalo
Jorge Bravo, Duke University
Stephen Eric Bronner, Rutgers University
Taggert J. Brooks, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse
Wayne T. Brough, Freedom Works
Robert K. Buchele, Smith College
Mark Buckley, University of California, Santa Cruz
James B. Burnham, Duquesne University
James L. Butkiewicz, University of Delaware
Bruce Caldwell, University of North Carolina, Greensboro
John E. Calfee, American Enterprise Institute
Joe Calhoun, Florida State University
Anil Caliskan, George Mason University
Charles W. Calomiris, Columbia University
Noel Campbell, North Georgia College and State University
Bryan Caplan, George Mason University
Robert S. Carlsen, University of Colorado, Denver
Bo A. Carlsson, Case Western Reserve University
Robert B. Catlett, Emporia State University
Emily Chamlee-Wright, Beloit College
Henry W. Chappell, Jr., University of South Carolina
Kristine L. Chase, St. Mary’s College of California
Carl F. Christ, Johns Hopkins University
Harold Christensen, Centenary College of Louisiana
Lawrence R. Cima, John Carroll University
James E. Clark, Wichita State University
R. Morris Coats, Nicholls State University
Loren Cobb, The Quaker Economist
Mark A. Cohen, Vanderbilt University
Ben Collier, Northwest Missouri State University
William B. Conerly, Conerly Consulting LLC
Patrick Conway, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
John E. Coons, University of California, Berkeley
Lee A. Coppock, University of Virginia
Roy E. Cordato, John Locke Foundation
Paul N. Courant, University of Michigan
Tyler Cowen, George Mason University
Dennis J. Coyle, Catholic University of America
Christopher J. Coyne, Hampden-Sydney College
Donald Cox, Boston College
Erik D. Craft, University of Richmond
Peter Cramton, University of Maryland
Maureen S. Crandall, National Defense University
Robert Thomas Crow, Business Economics
David Cuberes, Clemson University
Kirby R. Cundiff, Northeastern State University
Scott Cunningham, University of Georgia
Christopher Curran, Emory University
Hugh M. Curtler, Southwest Minnesota State University
Kirk Dameron, Colorado State University
Jerry W. Dauterive, Loyola University New Orleans
Paul A. David, Stanford University
Antony Davies, Dequesne University
Steven J. Davis, University of Chicago
Alan V. Deardorff, University of Michigan
Alan de Brauw, Williams College
Gregory Delemeester, Marietta College
Bradford DeLong, University of California, Berkeley
Michael Dennis, College of the Redwoods
Arthur T. Denzau, Claremont Graduate University
Arthur M. Diamond, Jr., University of Nebraska, Omaha
John L. Dobra, University of Nevada, Reno
Asif Dowla, St. Mary’s College of Maryland
Daniel W. Drezner, University of Chicago
Lloyd Dumas, University of Texas at Dallas
Manoranjan Dutta, Rutgers University
William R. Easterly, New York University
Richard M. Ebeling, Foundation for Economic Education
John C. Edmunds, Babson College
John B. Egger, Towson University
Barry J. Eichengreen, University of California, Berkeley
Eric Eliason, Brigham Young University
Jerome R. Ellig, George Mason University
Randall P. Ellis, Boston University
Sara Fisher Ellison, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Jeffrey C. Ely, Northwestern University
Ross B. Emmett, Michigan State University
Richard E. Ericson, East Carolina University
Barry S. Fagin, United States Air Force Academy
Frank Falero, Jr., California State University, Bakersfield
Jonathan Falk, NERA Economic Consulting
Eugene F. Fama, University of Chicago
Susan K. Feigenbaum, University of Missouri, St. Louis
Roger D. Feldman, University of Minnesota
J. Peter Ferderer, Macalester College
David N. Figlio, University of Florida
Morris P. Fiorina, Stanford University
Hartmut Fischer, University of San Francisco
Price V. Fishback, University of Arizona
Eric Fisher, Ohio State University
Franklin M. Fisher, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Robert J. Flanagan, Stanford University
Mark C. Foley, Davidson College
Fred E. Foldvary, Santa Clara University
William F. Ford, Middle Tennessee State University
Peter Frank, Wingate University
Robert H. Frank, Cornell University
Michele Fratianni, Indiana University
Jesse M. Fried, University of California,. Berkeley
Lowell E. Gallaway, Ohio University
Gary M. Galles, Pepperdine University
B. Delworth Gardner, Brigham Young University
Judith Gans, University of Arizona
Justin Garosi, North Dakota State University
David E. R. Gay, University of Arkansas
Adam K. Gehr, Jr., DePaul University
Michael Giberson, Independent Economist
Douglas M. Gibler, University of Kentucky
Adam Gifford, Jr., California State University, Northridge
John Gillingham, University of Missouri, St. Louis
William Gissy, Kennesaw State University
Edward L. Glaeser, Harvard University
Nathan Glazer, Harvard University
Brian Goff, Western Kentucky University
Steven M. Goldman, University of California, Berkeley
Deborah Goldsmith, City College of San Francisco
Don Goldstein, Allegheny College
Jack A. Goldstone, George Mason University
Peter Gordon, University of Southern California
Richard L. Gordon, The Pennsylvania State University
Roger H. Gordon, University of California, San Diego
Scott F. Grannis, Western Asset Management
Wayne B. Gray, Clark University
Martin Greenberger, University of California, Los Angeles
Michael Greenstone, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Gene M. Grossman, Princeton University
Peter Z. Grossman, Butler University
Richard S. Grossman, Wesleyan University
James D. Gwartney, Florida State University
David D. Haddock, Northwestern University
Larry M. Hall, Belmont University
James Halteman, Wheaton College
W. Michael Haneman, University of California, Berkeley
Robin Hanson, George Mason University
Andrew Hanssen, Montana State University
Stephen K. Happel, Arizona State University
W. Penn Hardwerker, University of Connecticut
Donald J. Harris, Stanford University
M. Kabir Hassan, University of New Orleans
Kevin A. Hassett, American Enterprise Institute
Robert H. Haveman, University of Wisconsin
Thomas Hazlett, George Mason University
Cary W. Heath, University of Louisiana, Lafayette
James J. Heckman, Nobel Laureate, University of Chicago
Scott Hein, Texas Tech University
Eric A. Helland, Claremont McKenna College
David R. Henderson, Hoover Institution
Jack High, George Mason University
Robert Higgs, The Independent Institute
P. J. Hill, Wheaton College
Bradley K. Hobbs, Florida Gulf Coast University
Randall G. Holcombe, Florida State University
Harry J. Holzer, Georgetown University
Richard Hooley, University of Pittsburgh
R. Bradley Hoppes, Missouri State University
Steven G. Horwitz, St. Lawrence University
Daniel E. Houser, George Mason University
Douglas A. Houston, University of Kansas
Charles W. Howe, University of Colorado, Boulder
John S. Howe, University of Missouri, Columbia
James E. Howell, Stanford University
Frank Howland, Wabash College
Hilary W. Hoynes, University of California, Davis
James L. Hudson, Northern Illinois University
James L. Huffman, Lewis & Clark College
Jeffrey Rogers Hummel, San Jose State University
David Hummels, Purdue University
Lester H. Hunt, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Christine Hurt, Marquette University
Roxana Idu, SUNY Buffalo
Frederick S. Inaba, Washington State University
Christopher R. Inama, Golden Gate University
Robert P. Inman, University of Pennsylvania
Michael Intriligator, University of California, Los Angeles
Thomas D. Jeitschko, Michigan State University
Bruce K. Johnson, Centre College
Douglas H. Joines, University of Southern California
Seth K. Jolly, Duke University
Garett Jones, Southern Illinois University
Kristin Roti Jones, Hartwick College
Michael Jones-Correa, Cornell University
William H. Kaempfer, University of Colorado, Boulder
Alfred E. Kahn, Cornell University
Joseph P. Kalt, Harvard University
Mark S. Kamlet, Carnegie Mellon University
Theodore C. Kariotis, Towson University
Stephen H. Karlson, Northern Illinois University
Jonathan M. Karpoff, University of Washington
David L. Kaserman, Auburn University
Raymond J. Keating, Small Business and Entrepreneurial Council
Peter B. Kenen, Princeton University
Miles S. Kimball, University of Michigan
Meelis, Kitsing, University of Massachusetts
Robin Klay, Hope College
Benjamin Klein, University of California, Los Angeles
Daniel Klein, George Mason University
Audrey D. Kline, University of Louisville
Paul R. Koch, Olivet Nazarene University
Roger Koppl, Fairleigh Dickinson University
Laurence J. Kotlikoff, Boston University
Melvyn B. Krauss, Hoover Institution
Brent E. Kreider, Iowa State University
Mordechai E. Kreinin, Michigan State University
David W. Kreutzer, James Madison University
Lawrence A. Kudlow, Kudlow & Company
Mukund S. Kulkarni, Penn State University, Harrisburg
Sumner J. La Croix, University of Hawaii
Arthur B. Laffer, A. B. Laffer Associates
Courtney LaFountain, University of Texas, Arlington
Deepak Lal, University of California, Los Angeles
Steven E. Landsburg, University of Rochester
Richard N. Langlois, University of Connecticut
Nicholas A. Lash, Loyola University
Wolfram Latsch, University of Washington
Robert A. Lawson, Capital University
Phillip LeBel, Montclair State University
Don R. Leet, California State University, Fresno
Kenneth M. Lehn, University of Pittsburgh
David K. Levine, University of California, Los Angeles
David M. Levy, George Mason University
Dale B. Light, Independent Scholar
P. Mather Lindsay, Mather Economics LLC
Tian Hao Liu, University of Chicago
George Lodge, Harvard University
Robert R. Logan, Northern Economic Research Associates
Edward J. Lopez, San José State University
Franklin A. Lopez, Tulane University
Anthony Loviscek, Seton Hall University
Robert E. Lucas, Jr., Nobel Laureate, University of Chicago
John E. Lunn, Hope College
W. Bentley MacLeod, Columbia University
Robert Main, Butler University
Burton G. Malkiel, Princeton University
Laurence Malone, Hartwick College
Yuri N. Maltsev, Carthage College
N. Gregory Mankiw, Harvard University
Geoffrey A. Manne, Lewis & Clark College
William F. Marina, Florida Atlantic University
Matthew Marlin, Duquesne University
Michael L. Marlow, California Polytechnic State University
Andres Marroquin Gramajo, George Mason University
Giovanni Mastrobuoni, Princeton University
David N. Mayer, Capital University
Carrie Mayne, Utah Department of Workforce Services
Michael J. Mazzeo, Northwestern University
Will McBride, George Mason University
Deirdre McCloskey, University of Illinois at Chicago
Paul W. McCracken, University of Michigan
Rachel McCulloch, Brandeis University
Michael J. McCully, High Point University
Daniel L. McFadden, Nobel Laureate, University of California, Berkeley
Joseph A. McKinney, Baylor University
Walter W. McMahon, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana
Robert McNown, University of Colorado, Boulder
Matthew Q. McPherson, Gonzaga University
Tom Means, San Jose State University
Roger Meiners, University of Texas, Arlington
John D. Merrifield, University of Texas, San Antonio
Harry Messenheimer, Rio Grande Foundation
Carrie Meyer, George Mason University
Jacob B. Michaelsen, University of California, Santa Cruz
William Milberg, New School for Social Research
Paul R. Milgrom, Stanford University
Demaris Miller, Psychologist
James C. Miller, III, George Mason University
Stephen C. Miller, Western Carolina University
Maria Minniti Koppl, Babson College
Jeffrey A. Miron, Harvard University
Wilson Mixon, Berry College
Robert Moffitt, Johns Hopkins University
Michael R. Montgomery, University of Maine
Cassandra Chrones Moore, Cato Institute
Thomas Gale Moore, Hoover Institution
John C. Moorhouse, Wake Forest University
Michael A. Morrisey, University of Alabama at Birmingham
Andrew P. Morriss, Case Western Reserve University
Milton L. Mueller, Syracuse University
Robert F. Mulligan, Western Carolina University
Michael C. Munger, Duke University
Ben Muse, Economist
David B. Mustard, University of Georgia
Richard F. Muth, Emory University
Thomas J. Nechyba, Duke University
Robert H. Nelson, University of Maryland
Russell Nelson, Economist
Hugh B. Nicholas Jr., Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center
M. Scott Niederjohn, Lakeland College
Eli M. Noam, Columbia University
Roger G. Noll, Stanford University
Masao Ogaki, Ohio State University
Lee Ohanian, University of California, Los Angeles
David J. O’Hara, Metropolitan State University
Randal O’Toole, Thoreau Institute
Lydia D. Ortega, San Jose State University
Evan Osborne, Wright State University
Randall E. Parker, East Carolina University
Allen M. Parkman, University of New Mexico
Jeffrey S. Parlow, Macomb Community College
Mark V. Pauly, University of Pennsylvania
Matthew C. Pearson, University of California, Davis
Sandra J. Peart, Baldwin-Wallace College
William S. Peirce, Case Western Reserve University
Robert L. Pennington, University of Central Florida
Jeffrey M. Perloff, University of California, Berkeley
Timothy Perri, Appalachian State University
Mark J. Perry, University of Michigan, Flint
William H. Peterson, Ludwig von Mises Institute
William S. Peirce, Case Western Reserve University
Owen R. Phillips, University of Wyoming
Robert S. Pindyck, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Joseph S. Pomykala, Towson University
Steven Postrel, Southern Methodist University
Benjamin Powell, The Independent Institute
John M. Quigley, University of California, Berkeley
Carlos Ramirez, George Mason University
Elizabeth L. Rankin, Centenary College of Louisiana
James B. Ramsey, New York University
Ronald A. Ratti, University of Missouri, Columbia
Salim Rashid, University of Illinois, Champaigne-Urbana
Laura Razzolini, Virginia Commonwealth University
Edward M. Rice, University of Washington
Raymond Riezman, University of Iowa
Salvador Rivera, State University of New York, Cobleskill
Luis N. Rivera-Pagan, Princeton University
Richard W. Rahn, Center for Global Economic Growth
Mario J. Rizzo, New York University
Michael J. Rizzo, Centre College
Donald John Roberts, Stanford University
Seth Roberts, University of California, Berkeley
Malcolm Robinson, Thomas More College
James D. Rodgers, Pennsylvania State University
Harvey S. Rosen, Princeton University
Nathan Rosenberg, Stanford University
Philip Rothman, East Carolina University
Ronald D. Rotunda, George Mason University
Brian Rowe, University of Michigan
Charles T. Rubin, Duquesne University
Paul H. Rubin, Emory University
Gerard Russo, University of Hawaii
Andrew R. Rutten, Stanford University
Matt E. Ryan, West Virginia University
Andrew Samwick, Dartmouth College
Steven C. Salop, Georgetown University
Raymond D. Sauer, Jr., Clemson University
Thomas R. Saving, Texas A & M University
W. Charles Sawyer, University of Southern Mississippi
Edward M. Scahill, University of Scranton
D. Eric Schansberg, Indiana University, New Albany
Thomas C. Schelling, Nobel Laureate, University of Maryland
Richard Schmalensee, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Ken Schoolland, Hawaii Pacific University
Stewart J. Schwab, Cornell University
Anna J. Schwartz, National Bureau of Economic Research
Kenneth E. Scott, Stanford University
Carlos C. Seiglie, Rutgers University
Barry J. Seldon, University of Texas, Dallas
George A. Selgin, University of Georgia
Richard Sennett, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
John F. Shampton, Texas Wesleyan University
Richard Sherlock, Utah State University
Tyler G. Shumway, University of Michigan
Randy T. Simmons, Utah State University
Rita Simon, American University
Charles David Skipton, University of Tampa
Daniel J. Slottje, Southern Methodist University
W. Gene Smiley, Marquette University
Alastair Smith, New York University
Charles Welstead Smith, Ohio State University
James F. Smith, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Jeffrey Smith, University of Michigan
Karl Smith, North Carolina State University
Nathan Smith, World Bank
Robert S. Smith, Cornell University
Vernon L. Smith, Nobel Laureate, George Mason University
Russell S. Sobel, West Virginia University
Ilya Somin, George Mason University
John W. Sommer, Political Economy Research Institute
John C. Soper, John Carroll University
Martin C. Spechler, Indiana University
David B. Spence, University of Texas, Austin
Mark Steckbeck, Hillsdale College
Roland Stephen, North Carolina State University
E. Frank Stephenson, Berry College
Robert M. Stern, University of Michigan
Robert T. Stewart, Fordham University
Hans Stoll, Vanderbilt University
Edward P. Stringham, San Jose State University
Amy H. Sturgis, Belmont University
Paul J. Sullivan, Georgetown University
Anita Summers, University of Pennsylvania
Scott Sumner, Bentley College
William A. Sundstrom, Santa Clara University
Shirley V. Svorny, California State University, Northridge
Aaron M. Swoboda, University of Pittsburgh
Richard E. Sylla, New York University
Alexander Tabarrok, The Independent Institute
John A. Tatom, Indiana State University
Jason E. Taylor, Central Michigan University
David J. Theroux, The Independent Institute
Clifford F. Thies, Shenandoah University
Christopher R. Thomas, University of South Florida
T. Nicolaus Tideman, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Richard H. Timberlake, Jr., University of Georgia
Robert D. Tollison, Clemson University
Mark Toma, University of Kentucky
John F. Tomer, Manhattan College
Jay L. Tontz, California State University, East Bay
Joel P. Trachtman, Tufts University
Adrian E. Tschoegl, University of Pennsylvania
Kevin K. Tsui, Clemson University
David Tufte, Southern Utah Unhiversity
Frederick Tung, Emory University
Gordon Tullock, George Mason University
Chad S. Turner, Nicholls State University
Nicola C. Tynan, Dickinson College
Michelle A. Vachris, Christopher Newport University
John J. Villarreal, California State University, East Bay
Georg Vanberg, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Mark Van Boening, University of Mississippi
T. Norman Van Cott, Ball State University
Hendrik Van den Berg, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Alvaro Vargas Llosa, The Independent Institute
Karen I. Vaughn, George Mason University
Richard K. Vedder, Ohio University
Erik Voeten, George Washington University
George Vredeveld, University of Cincinnati
Deborah L. Walker, Fort Lewis College
Eric Wanner, Russell Sage Foundation
Michael R. Ward, University of Texas, Arlington
John T. Warner, Clemson University
Alan Rufus Waters, California State University, Fresno
Michael J. Webb, Regulatory Economics Group
William Weber, Southeast Missouri State University
Ivo I. Welch, Brown University
David L. Weimer, University of Wisconsin, Madison
John T. Wenders, University of Idaho
J. Fred Weston, University of California, Los Angeles
Robert M. Whaples, Wake Forest University
Lawrence H. White, University of Missouri, St. Louis
Ronald F. White, College of Mount St. Joseph
John Whitehead, Appalachian State University
Marina v. N. Whitman, University of Michigan
Roland Wiederaenders, Austin Capital Management
Christopher Wignall, University of California at San Diego (grad econ student)
Richard W. Wilcke, University of Louisville
James A. Wilcox, University of California, Berkeley
Thomas D. Willett, Claremont Graduate University
Arlington W. Williams, Indiana University, Bloomington
Douglas Wills, University of Washington, Tacoma
Bonnie Wilson, St. Louis University
Larry T. Wimmer, Brigham Young University
Michael K. Wohlgenant, North Carolina State University
Barbara Wolfe, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Justin Wolfers, University of Pennsylvania
Gary Wolfram, Hillsdale College
Arthur Woolf, University of Vermont
Eric C. Woychik, Strategy Integration LLC
Brian Wright, University of California, Berkeley
Joshua D. Wright, George Mason University
Bruce Yandle, Clemson University
David B. Yoffie, Harvard University
DeVon L. Yoho, Ball State University
Derek K. Yonai, Campbell University
Jeffrey T. Young, St. Lawrence University
Asghar Zardkoohi, Texas A & M University
Lei Zhang, Clemson University
Kate Xiao Zhou, University of Hawaii
Zenon X. Zygmont, Western Oregon University

Foreign Signatories top^

Lord Meghnad Desai, London School of Economics, England
Kevin Dowd, University of Nottingham, England
Jose Antonio Fontana, Uruguay
Francisco Javier Aparicio, CIDE, Mexico
Jurgen G. Backhaus, Erfurt University, Germany
Alvaro Bardon, Universidad Finis Terrae, Chile
Alberto Benegas-Lynch, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Niclas Berggren, Ratio Institute, Sweden
Andreas Bergh, Lund University, Sweden
Sonja Boehmer-Christiansen, University of Hull, England
Gregor Bush, BMO Economics, Canada
John B. Chilton, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Julio H. Cole, Universidad Francisco Marroquin, Guatemala
Janet Coleman, London School of Economics and Political Science, England
Enrico Colombatto, University of Torino, Italy
Daniel Cordova, Peruvian University of Applied Sciences, Peru
Eric Crampton, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Fredrik Erixon, Timbro, Sweden
Ana Marie Fossati, Agencia Interamericana de Prensa Económica, Uruguay
Angel Solano Garcia, Universitad de Granada, Spain
Ronald Hamowy, University of Alberta, Canada
Steffen Hentrich, German Advisory Council on the Environment, Berlin, Germany
Andrew Leigh, Australian National University
Pierre Lemieux, University of Québec in Outaouais, Canada
Christopher R. Lingle, Francisco Marroquin University, Guatemala
Lance J. Lochner, University of Western Ontario, Canada
Francis T. Lui, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China
Robert Nef, Liberales Institut Zurich, Switzerland
Jan Narveson, University of Waterloo, Canada
Maximilian Oberbauer, University of Vienna, Austria
John F. Opie, Feri Rating & Research GmbH, Germany
Mohamed Oudebji, Economics and Social Sciences of Marrakech, Morocco
Tomi Ovaska, University of Regina, Canada
Eduardo Pegurier, Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Victoria Curzon Price, University of Geneva, Switzerland
Herbert Reginbogin, University of Potsdam, Germany
Friedrich Schneider, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria
Parth J. Shah, Centre for Civil Society, India
Claudio Djissey Shikida, Brazil
Saul Trejo, Grupo Acex, Mexico
Alec van Gelder, International Policy Network, England
Sam Vermeersch, NPO Fakbar Letteren, Belgium
Anthony M. C. Waterman, University of Manitoba, Canada

Useful References top^

Borjas, George J., and Lawrence F. Katz. 2006. Evolution of the Mexican-Born Workforce in the United States. NBER Working Paper No. 11281. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Card, David. 2005. Is the New Immigration Really So Bad? NBER Working Paper No. 11547. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Card, David, and Ethan G. Lewis. 2005. The Diffusion of Mexican Immigrants During the 1990s: Explanations and Impacts. NBER Working Paper No. 11552. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Couch, Jim F., Brett A. King, William H. Wells, and Peter M. Williams. June 2001. Nation of Origin Bias and the Enforcement of Immigration Laws by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Independent Institute Working Paper. Oakland, Calif.: The Independent Institute.

Cowen, Tyler, and Daniel Rothschild. May 15, 2006. Hey, Don’t Bad-mouth Unskilled Immigrants: You Don’t Have to Be a Computer Genius to Be Good for the U.S. Los Angeles Times.

__________. June 12, 2006. Blending In, Moving Up. Washington Post.

Friedberg, Rachel M. 2001. The Impact of Mass Migration on the Israeli Labor Market. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 116 (4): 1373-1408.

Friedberg, Rachel M., and Jennifer Hunt. 1995. The Impact of Immigrants on Host Country Wages, Employment and Growth, Journal of Economic Perspectives 9 (4): 23-44.

Gallaway, Lowell E., Stephen Moore, and Richard K. Vedder. 2000. The Immigration Problem: Then and Now. The Independent Review 4 (3): 347-364.

Gandal, Neil, Gordon H. Hanson, and Matthew J. Slaughter. 2000. Technology, Trade, and Adjustment to Immigration in Israel. NBER Working Paper No. 7962. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Krueger, Alan B. April 6, 2006. Two Labor Economic Issues for the Immigration Debate. Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress.

Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P., and Giovanni Peri. 2006. Rethinking the Gains from Immigration: Theory and Evidence from the U.S. NBER Working Paper No. 11672. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Powell, Benjamin. April 30, 2005. Immigration, Economic Growth, and the Welfare State. Oakland, Calif.: The Independent institute.

__________. May 18, 2005. Immigration Reform that Both Sides Can Support. San Francisco Business Times.

___________. April 4, 2006. How To Reform Immigration Laws. Atlanta Journal-Constitution.

___________. December 22, 2005. The Pseudo Economic Problems of Immigration. San Diego Union-Tribune.

Powell, Benjamin, and Peter Laufer. September 21, 2005. Immigration Wars: Open or Closed Borders for America? Transcript of Independent Policy Forum. Oakland, Calif.: The Independent Institute.

Simon, Julian. 1999. The Economic Consequences of Immigration, 2nd ed. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press.

_______. 1990. Population Matters: People, Resources, Environment, and Immigration. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.

Smith, James P., and Barry Edmonston. 1998. The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Tabarrok, Alexander. 2000. Economic and Moral Factors in Favor of Open Immigration. Oakland, Calif.: The Independent Institute.

Vedder, Richard K., and Lowell E. Gallaway. 1993. Out of Work: Unemployment and Government in Twentieth-Century America, rev. ed. New York: New York University Press for The Independent Institute.