A five-time mayor of fin-de-siècle Vienna, Dr. Karl Leuger (1844–1910) was a pioneering populist who mixed nationalism, anti-Semitism, and socialism into a potent brew that drew the wrath of Emperor Franz Joseph and the admiration of a young Adolf Hitler. Although city officials have recently taken half-measures to obscure his former prominence, Lueger’s unacknowledged influence continues to this day.

Culture and SocietyEuropeGovernment and PoliticsInternational Economics and DevelopmentLaw and LibertyPolitical TheoryRace Issues
Other Independent Review articles by Andrei Znamenski
Spring 2015 From “National Socialists” to “Nazi”: History, Politics, and the English Language
Spring 2012 The “European Miracle”: Warrior Aristocrats, Spirit of Liberty, and Competition as a Discovery Process