In The Uniqueness of Western Civilization, historian Ricardo Duchesne credits the liberty and creativity of the West to a strong sense of personal autonomy that self-centered Indo-European warrior aristocrats planted throughout Europe as they migrated from the Ukrainian steppes before the first millennium B.C.E. For theoretical insight about the unfolding of the Western spirit of liberty, Duchesne turns to Hegel and Nietzsche, but a better choice would have been Hayek.

Civil Liberties and Human RightsEuropeGovernment and PoliticsInternational Economics and DevelopmentLaw and LibertyPolitical Theory
Other Independent Review articles by Andrei Znamenski
Spring 2015 From “National Socialists” to “Nazi”: History, Politics, and the English Language
Summer 2013 In the Shadow of Dr. Lueger: Vienna Notes of an Accidental Tourist