The casualties of World War I did not end with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. Part of the toll was the war’s acceleration of the nationalization of private life, a trend that continues to the present day.

T. Hunt Tooley is Chairman of the Department of History at Austin College.
Culture and Society
Other Independent Review articles by T. Hunt Tooley
Spring 2008 Bloody Germany: Berghahn’s View of Twentieth-Century State Violence
Winter 2006/07 “All the People Are Now Guerillas”: The Warfare of Sherman, Sheridan, and Lincoln, and the Brutality of the Twentieth Century
Fall 2004 A Low Dishonest Decade: The Great Powers, Eastern Europe, and the Economic Origins of World War II, 1930–1941