Vladimir Lenin is often portrayed sympathetically as a leader who was willing to tolerate open discussion and debate, leading to speculation that the Soviet Union would have developed a more humane form of socialism had he lived. Yet, in one of his last major acts, Lenin initiated the deportation or internal exile of non-Communist physicians, which soon broadened into a general witch-hunt against independent intellectuals and professionals.
|Other Independent Review articles by Paul R. Gregory
|One Day We Will Live without Fear: Everyday Lives Under the Soviet Police State
|The Black Swan of the Russian Revolution