In the Summer 2023 issue of The Independent Review Edward Fuller offered a new interpretation to contend that the atomic bombing of Japan was unnecessary. Despite his worthy purpose, some of his key data—such as on Japan’s fuel supplies and combat aircraft—seem questionable. There are conceptual problems in his essay involving relevant evidence, causal connections, and conclusions. He relies much too heavily on statements by American rather than Japanese leaders to explain Japanese decision-making.

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Barton J. Bernstein is Professor of History at Stanford University and a Member of the Board of Advisors for the Center on Peace and Liberty at the Independent Institute.
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