In eighteenth and nineteenth century Europe, progress in ideas and ethics encouraged greater collaboration and competition, creating new opportunities for ordinary people and fostering a great enrichment that benefited all levels of society. Today a new economic liberation is underway, as the egalitarian effects of technology spread across the world, combating poverty and other social ills, and dramatically improving individual wealth and well-being—a trend vulnerable to coercive powers that could damage productivity and liberty.

Art Carden is a Research Fellow at the Independent Institute and an Associate Professor of Economics at Samford University.
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Deirdre N. McCloskey is Distinguished Professor of Economics, History, English, and Communication at the University of Illinois in Chicago.
Business and EntrepreneurshipEconomic History and DevelopmentEconomic PolicyEconomyRegulation
Other Independent Review articles by Art Carden
Fall 2023 Thomas Sowell: Uncommon Perspectives on Culture, Society, and Economics
Spring 2023 The Creation of Knowledge in Society: Waste Defined by Property and Exchange
Spring 2022 “The Danger of Deplorable Reactions”: W. H. Hutt on Liberalism, Populism, and the Constitutional Political Economy of Racism
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