Populism—defense of rule by and for the common people—emerged in response to the problem of maintaining ordered liberty in a democratic society. Functional populism requires a self-governing, independent but responsible citizenry steeped in faith, family and local freedom. Unfortunately, the corruption of this citizenry by a managerial elite has doomed populism; as a result, American constitutionalism itself is endangered.

Bruce P. Frohnen is professor of law in the College of Law at Ohio Northern University.
Other Independent Review articles by Bruce P. Frohnen
Summer 2020 Reason, Faith, and the Struggle for Western Civilization