Could it be that the institutional racism of Jim Crow occurred not despite the Progressive era but because of it? Not only did the Progressive reforms create new economic rents that could be exploited by whites and by the politicians who enacted those reforms, but many leading Progressives espoused views on racial purity and segregation that put them in the vanguard of the American apartheid system.

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Other Independent Review articles by William L. Anderson
    Summer 2004   Law as a Weapon
    Summer 1998   The Origins of Virtue