The Modern Health Care Maze: Development and Effects of the Four-Party System
By Charles Kroncke, Ronald F. White
This article appeared in the Summer 2009 issue of The Independent Review

Despite numerous federal interventions that have favored health care providers and insurers, the industry has yet to figure out how to overcome the problems of adverse selection, moral hazard, information asymmetry, and free-ridership. Did it ever make sense to create a health care system in which fourth-party employers purchase insurance for their first-party employees from third-party corporations, which in turn pay second-party providers for health care products and services?

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