“All the People Are Now Guerillas”: The Warfare of Sherman, Sheridan, and Lincoln, and the Brutality of the Twentieth Century
By T. Hunt Tooley
This article appeared in the Winter 2007 issue of The Independent Review


By the 18th century, Europeans had succeeded in limiting the scope and cruelty of wars, yet by the time of the First World War, the tide had turned with massive civilian deaths, ethnic cleansing, slaughter of prisoners, violence against and expropriation of civilians, and bombing of civilian centers. One cause of the 20th century’s brutality was the U.S. government’s increasing willingness to do violence to civilians, starting during the War Between the States.

Other Independent Review articles by T. Hunt Tooley
    Fall 2009   Some Costs of the Great War: Nationalizing Private Life
    Spring 2008   Bloody Germany: Berghahn’s View of Twentieth-Century State Violence
    Fall 2004   A Low Dishonest Decade: The Great Powers, Eastern Europe, and the Economic Origins of World War II, 1930–1941

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