By the 18th century, Europeans had succeeded in limiting the scope and cruelty of wars, yet by the time of the First World War, the tide had turned with massive civilian deaths, ethnic cleansing, slaughter of prisoners, violence against and expropriation of civilians, and bombing of civilian centers. One cause of the 20th centurys brutality was the U.S. governments increasing willingness to do violence to civilians, starting during the War Between the States.
|Other Independent Review articles by T. Hunt Tooley|
|Fall 2009||Some Costs of the Great War: Nationalizing Private Life|
|Spring 2008||Bloody Germany: Berghahns View of Twentieth-Century State Violence|
|Fall 2004||A Low Dishonest Decade: The Great Powers, Eastern Europe, and the Economic Origins of World War II, 19301941|