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Working Papers

Working Papers are research articles that have been submitted to the Independent Institute or written by our Fellows, but have not yet been published or peer reviewed. Independent maintains this index of working papers in order to help disseminate, discuss, and improve important ideas. Authors welcome informed comments. If you would like to submit your paper for possible inclusion please email the paper’s abstract to Independent’s Research Director, William F. Shughart II.

“Not Merely Perfidious but Ungrateful”: The U.S. Takeover of West Florida
Robert Higgs | March 14, 2005

The Anomaly of Off-Label Drug Prescriptions
Alexander T. Tabarrok | November 1, 1999

A Brief History of Checkpoints (And What to do About Them)
Patrick Adams | April 1, 2012

The Changing United States Health Care System
The Effect of Competition on Structure and Performance

Robert B. Helms | April 4, 2001

Coasian Contracts in the Coeur d’Alene Mining District
Robert Higgs | June 2, 2004

Conflicts of Interest in the Hollywood Film Industry
Darren Filson, Thomas E. Borcherding | April 1, 2000

Constitutional Causes for Technological Leadership: Why Europe?
Jurgen G. Backhaus | August 1, 2001

Constitutional Design and Economic Freedom
Xavier de Vanssay, Zane Spindler | March 1, 2001

Cooption and Repression in the Soviet Union
Dmitriy Gershenson, Herschel I. Grossman | December 7, 1999

The Creation of Knowledge in Society: Waste Defined by Property and Exchange
Art Carden | July 25, 2017

The Demand for Democide
An Instrumental Variables Analysis

King Banaian | December 1, 2001

Democracy, Spontaneous Order and Peace
Implications for the Classical Liberal Critique of Democratic Politics

Gus diZerega | January 3, 2000

Development Aid and Economic Freedom: Are They Related?
Benjamin Powell, Matt E. Ryan | May 9, 2005

Development of the American Railroad Network During the Early 19th Century
Private versus Public Enterprise

Clifford F. Thies | October 1, 2001

Do Civil and Political Repression Really Boost Foreign Direct Investments?
Philipp W. Harms, Heinrich W. Ursprung | May 3, 2001

Do Good Laws Make Good Citizens?
An Economic Analysis of Internalizing Legal Values

Robert D. Cooter | April 8, 2001

Do Off-Label Drug Practices Argue Against FDA Efficacy Requirements?
Testing an Argument by Structured Conversations with Experts

Alexander T. Tabarrok, Daniel B. Klein | October 2, 2003

Do Parties Benefit from Electoral Manipulation?
Electoral Laws and Heresthetics in Poland, 1989-1993

Marek M. Kaminski | March 2, 2001

Economic Principles of Constitutions
An Economic Analysis of Constitutional Law

Jurgen G. Backhaus | August 2, 2001

The Effect of Electoral Institutions on Tort Awards
Alexander T. Tabarrok, Eric A. Helland | September 1, 1999

Effects of Criminal Procedure on Crime Rates
Mapping Out the Consequences of The Exclusionary Rule

Raymond A. Atkins, Paul H. Rubin | October 7, 1999

An Experimental Investigation of Hobbesian Jungles
Bart J. Wilson, Benjamin Powell | May 23, 2005

Financial Integration over Three Centuries
James R. Lothian | April 1, 2001

Freedom of Speech, Cyberspace, Harassment Law, and the Clinton Administration
Eugene Volokh | December 6, 1999

Freedom of Speech, Information Privacy, and the Troubling Implications of a Right to Stop People from Speaking About You
Eugene Volokh | December 4, 1999

A Geo-Spatial Macro-Economic Analysis of Climate Change
Sungno Niggol Seo | August 18, 2005

Government and the Economy since World War II
Robert Higgs | April 20, 2005

Government and the Economy: The World Wars
Robert Higgs | April 20, 2005

Has Leviathan Been Bound?
A Theory of Imperfectly Constrained Government with Evidence from the States

Bryan Caplan | October 1, 1999

Homicide Rates and Substance Control Policy
Kirby R. Cundiff | May 1, 2001

Individual Unemployment Accounts
Stephen M. Colarelli, Lawrence Brunner | October 5, 2003

Institutional Foundations of Economic Freedom
A time-series cross-section analysis

Xavier de Vanssay, Zane Spindler, Vincent Hildebrand | May 20, 2004

Internal Enforcement
The Political Economy of Immigration

Keith D. Malone | October 30, 2009

International Money and Common Currencies in Historical Perspective
James R. Lothian, Gerald P. Dwyer, Jr. | May 1, 2002

An Introduction to Economics as a Moral Science
James E. Alvey | December 5, 1999

Iraq, Afghanistan, War, and Money: A Look at Two Presidencies
Anthony Gregory | March 7, 2011

Is Cybersecurity a Public Good? Evidence from the Financial Services Industry
Benjamin Powell | March 14, 2005