Surging government interference is motivating high-profile Silicon Valley leaders literally to seek new frontiers where innovation can flourish. PayPal founder Peter Thiel, for example, is funding seasteading, man-made sea colonies. The concept is not new and innovators can find a valuable case study in the short-lived Republic of Minerva.
As revealed for the first time in the new book, Willard Garvey: An Epic Life, Minerva was the brainchild of international developer Willard Garvey, pioneering global investor John Templeton, and entrepreneur and yacht designer Seth Atwood. Like todays Silicon Valley tech leaders, the three friends saw the ill effects of governments quashing opportunity and dreamed of an alternate environment where individual rights would be respected and entrepreneurship could flourish unabated. They set out to find an unclaimed piece of property.
In 1970, Atwood identified the Minerva reefs, 260 miles from Tonga, and 450 miles from Fiji. The three agreed they would keep the project under wraps, and Garvey contacted Michael Oliver, who had been involved in previous new country efforts. Oliver took the lead on the project, with Garvey, Templeton, and Atwood bankrolling the efforts.
Unfortunately, Oliver proved far less reserved than his backers, and in early 1972, he filed a Declaration of Sovereignty with the U.S. State Department. As reported by The New York Times, the following month, Tongasome think at the behest of the U.S. State Departmentlaid claim to the reefs.
Sovereignty remains the hurdle in any attempt to establish a new nation, and the Seasteading Institutes Poseidon Award, offered for the first established sea colony, rightly includes de facto political autonomy as a criterion. Yet it is hardly in the interest of the worlds established nations to bestow recognition on a new country setting itself up in competition for the worlds entrepreneurs and taxpayers.
Garvey and his partners abandoned Minerva and for the remainder of their lives devoted considerable energy to efforts that would establish the principles and practice of liberty, free markets, and individual rights in the United States and elsewhere.
Garvey supported pro-liberty groups such as the Independent Institute, created the National Center for Privatization, and engaged in a campaign of building support for opportunity-enhancing systems of government. Templeton created his own foundation, which continues to champion the advancement of freedom and free enterprise.
The fall of the Berlin Wall provided vindication within their lifetimes of the ideas they backed. Consider, for example, the former Soviet colony of Estonia. Freed from Moscows control, Estonia embraced free trade, a low flat tax, sound money and privatization, resulting in one of the freest societies and fastest-growing economies of the late 20th century. Just twenty years later, The Economist calls Estonia a world leader in technology.
In the United States, meanwhile, government increasingly colonizes Silicon Valley with an onerous regulatory regime. Surveillance agencies conduct vast customer data sweeps, the FTC targets Apple with a directive, and the government restricts the hiring of foreign-born talent. And so on.
In addition to Thiels quest, Googles Larry Page proposes creating a piece of the world where new ideas can be tried out in the absence of antiquated laws, and venture capitalist Tim Draper is backing a ballot initiative to carve California into six states, including an autonomous Silicon Valley.
They can learn from the Minerva experiment in Willard Garvey. And the track record of Estonia makes a case for directing support toward creating demand for a free economy at home rather than a new economy elsewhere.
|Mary L. G. Theroux is Senior Vice President of the Independent Institute and a columnist for The Huffington Post. Having received her A.B. in economics from Stanford University, Ms. Theroux is Managing Director of Lightning Ventures, L.P., a San Francisco Bay Area investment firm, and Vice President of the C.S. Lewis Society of California.|