Ireland was one of the worlds most dynamic economies during the 1990s. Other regions, including Arizona, want to emulate Irelands success. Unfortunately, two of Arizonas most vocal advocates of the Irish model, Governor Janet Napolitano and Arizona State University President Michael Crow, have learned the wrong lessons from Irelands success. If Arizona follows their recommendations the state will not achieve the economic luck of the Irish.
Ireland catapulted itself from a standard of living only about two-thirds the level of the EU average in 1985, to one of Europes richest countries by 2000. Irelands performance in the late 1990s was particularly impressiveits economy grew nearly 10 percent annually. Governor Napolitano and ASU President Crow attribute this success to governmental industrial planning and subsidization of scientific research. Unfortunately for Arizona, they are mistaken.
Last March, to emulate Irelands success, the Arizona Science Foundation hired William Harris, who previously directed the Science Foundation Ireland. However Science Foundation Ireland was only created in 2000. By then most of Irelands dramatic growth had already occurred. In fact, since its creation Irelands economic growth has averaged roughly half of what it did in the late 1990s. Science Foundation Ireland clearly did not play a role in Irelands transformation.
Arizonans also mistakenly credit the Industrial Development Authority for Irelands economic boom. The Authority is supposed to attract companies to Ireland. The Industrial Development Authority did exist during Irelands boom. However, it has existed since 1949. In the 1960s it was given an expanded role in the industrialization of the Irish economy. If this agency was the main driver of growth in the Irish economy the growth should have come long before the 1990s. The Authoritys budget was actually cut just prior to Irelands growth.
The importance of economic freedom is Irelands real lesson. For years the Irish government interfered with the market by taxing, spending, regulating, and inflating. The result of the governments spendthrift policies was a fiscal crisis in the mid 1980s. Politicians were forced to cut spending or the government was going to have to default on its debt or face an IMF intervention. The Irish dealt with the crisis by making massive spending cuts in 1987 and 1988.
The 1987 spending cuts eliminated the budget deficit and by 1990 Irelands outstanding debt had shrunk from a high of 116 percent of GDP to back under 100 percent. Although the Irish motives were not ideological, the result of the spending cuts and growth was that government spending as a percent of the economy shrank from 55 percent in 1985 to 41 percent by 1990.
Ireland embarked on a series of tax cuts once the size of government shrank and the debt problem was resolved. Income taxes were cut multiple times. The top personal income tax rate fell from 65 percent in 1985 to 44 percent by 2001. The standard income tax rate went from more than 35 percent to 22 percent. Corporate income taxes were slashed from 40 percent in 1996 to 20 percent by 2000. A special 10 percent tax rate was offered in some locations and to particular industries but this has since been phased out and now the standard corporate tax has been lowered to 12.5 percent.
Slashing government spending and taxes were the last missing pieces of economic freedom in Ireland. Like Arizona, Ireland already had a strong rule of law, fairly free international trade, and a stable monetary environment. These last missing pieces of economic freedom combined with the existing freedoms to provide the catalyst that launched the Celtic Tiger. In 1995 during Irelands growth, and just prior to the truly rapid tiger growth, Ireland ranked 5th in the Economic Freedom of the World index. Since 2000 its score and rank have slid back slightly and so has Irelands growth.
Irelands lesson is that Arizona should dramatically increase economic freedoms if it wants to grow. Arizona already ranks fairly well in freedom compared to many U.S. states but it still trails some neighbors. Taxation and government spending in particular lag behind Arizonas overall score. If Arizonas leadership wants to emulate Irelands success they should be slashing taxation and spendingnot subsidizing science and planning industrial policy. Improving Arizonas economic freedom, in the words of a Guinness commercial, would be Brilliant!
|Benjamin Powell is a Senior Fellow at the Independent Institute, Director of the Free Market Institute at Texas Tech University. He Independent Institute books include The Economics of Immigration: Market-Based Approaches, Social Science, and Public Policy, Housing America: Building out of Crisis, and Making Poor Nations Rich.|
THE ECONOMICS OF IMMIGRATION: Market-Based Approaches, Social Science, and Public Policy
Few topics in current affairs are as contentious as immigration. Yet despite the controversies, social scientists who study immigration largely agree about its effects, whatever differences they may have about how a nation should change its policies. Their findings, however, have been buried in academic journals accessible only to other scholarsuntil now. With the publication of The Economics of Immigration: Market-Based Approaches, Social Science, and Public Policy, edited by Benjamin Powell, readers can now easily access the substance of the vast scholarly literature about a subject that touches millions of lives.