Ralph Ellison’s classic novel gives voice to the frustration of African Americans in the pre–civil rights era. It is also a useful study in the ways in which philanthropy can go awry when it is based on falsehoods and denies dignity to its intended beneficiaries in order to serve the donor’s underlying ideology.

This article will be posted in full nine months after its initial print publication. To read it now, please buy this issue in print or eBook format from our store, or via Magzter which grants electronic access via smartphone, tablet, or web browser viewing.