2016
6
1
0
2126
Vehicle Directional Stability Control Using Bifurcation Analysis of Yaw Rate Equilibrium
2
2
In this article, vehicle cornering stability and brake stabilization via bifurcation analysis has been investigated. In order to extract the governing equations of motion, a nonlinear four-wheeled vehicle model with two degrees of freedom has been developed. Using the continuation software package MatCont a stability analysis based on phase plane analysis and bifurcation of equilibrium is performed and an optimal controller has been proposed. Finally, simulation has been done in Matlab-Simulink software considering a sine with dwell steering angle input, and the effectiveness of the proposed controller on the aforementioned model has been validated with Carsim model.
2065
2074
M.H.
Shojaeefard
M.H.
Shojaeefard
Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran
mhshf@iust.ac.ir
S.
Ebrahimi Nejad
S.
Ebrahimi Nejad
Faculty of Automotive Engineering
Iran
M.
Masjedi
M.
Masjedi
Faculty of Automotive Engineering
Iran
Compensating Yaw Moment
Phase plane
Bifurcation Analysis
Optimal Control
[[1]. L. De Novellis, A. Sorniotti, P. Gruber, J. Orus, J.-M. Rodriguez Fortun, J. Theunissen, et al., 2015, Direct yaw moment control actuated through electric drivetrains and friction brakes: Theoretical design and experimental assessment, Mechatronics, 26: 1-15.##[2]. Y. F. Lian, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, and Y. T. Tian, 2015, Direct Yaw-moment Robust Control for Electric Vehicles Based on Simplified Lateral Tire Dynamic Models and Vehicle Model, IFAC-PapersOnLine, 48: 33-38.##[3]. J. Lee, J. Choi, K. Yi, M. Shin, and B. Ko, 2014, Lane-keeping assistance control algorithm using differential braking to prevent unintended lane departures, Control Engineering Practice, 23: 1-13.##[4]. Q. Lu, P. Gentile, A. Tota, A. Sorniotti, P. Gruber, F. Costamagna, et al., 2016, Enhancing##[5]. vehicle cornering limit through sideslip and yaw rate control, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, IN PRESS.##[6]. E. Esmailzadeh, A. Goodarzi, and G. R. Vossoughi, 2003, Optimal yaw moment control law for improved vehicle handling, Mechatronics, 13: 659-675.##[7]. M. Eslamian, G. Alizadeh, and M. Mirzael, 2007, Optimization-based non-linear yaw moment control law for stabilizing vehicle lateral dynamics. Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs. Part D, 221:1513-1523.##[8]. B. L. Boada, M. J. L. Boada, and V. Díaz, 2005, Fuzzy-logic applied to yaw moment control for vehicle stability. Vehicle System Dynamics, 43:753-770.##[9]. R. Wang, H. Jing, C. Hu, M. Chadli, and F. Yan, 2016, Robust H∞ output-feedback yaw control for in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles with differential steering, Neurocomputing, 173 (3): 676-684.##[10]. M. Canale, L. Fagiano, M. Milanese, and P. Borodani, 2007, Robust vehicle yaw control using an active differential and IMC techniques. Control Engineering Practice, 15:923-941.##[11]. H.M. Lv, N. Chen, and P. Li, 2004, Multi-objective optimal control for four-wheel steering vehicle based on yaw rate tracking. Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs. Part D, 218:1117-1123.##[12]. S. Zhang, H. Tang, Z. Han, and Y. Zhang, 2006, Controller design for vehicle stability enhancement. Control Engineering Practice, 14: 1413-1412.##[13]. H. B. Pacejka, 2012, Tire and Vehicle Dynamics, Third Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann (Elsevier), Oxford.##[14]. A. Dhooge, W. Govaerts, Yu.A. Kuznetsov, H.G.E. Meijer and B. Sautois, 2008, New features of the software MatCont for bifurcation analysis of dynamical systems, Mathematical and Computer Modelling of Dynamical Systems, 14 (2): 147-175.##[15]. S. Inagaki, I. Kshiro, M. Yamamoto, 1994, Analysis on vehicle stability in critical cornering using phase-plane method. Proceedings of AVEC’94, Tsukuba, Japan.## ##]
Studying Influence of Preheating Conditions on Design Parameters of Continuous Paint Cure Ovens
2
2
<span style="line-height: 115%; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: " times="" new="" roman";="" mso-hansi-font-family:="" "times="" mso-bidi-language:="" fa;"="">This paper concentrates on a new procedure which experimentally recognises gears and bearings faults of a typical gearbox system using a least square support vector machine (LSSVM). Two wavelet selection criteria Maximum Energy to Shannon Entropy ratio and Maximum Relative Wavelet Energy are used and compared to select an appropriate wavelet for feature extraction. The fault diagnosis method consists of three steps, firstly the six different base wavelets are considered. Out of these six wavelets, the base wavelet is selected based on wavelet selection criterion to extract statistical features from wavelet coefficients of raw vibration signals. Based on wavelet selection criterion, Daubechies wavelet and Meyer are selected as the best base wavelet among the other wavelets considered from the Maximum Relative Energy and Maximum Energy to Shannon Entropy criteria respectively. Finally, the gearbox faults are classified using these statistical features as input to LSSVM technique. The optimal decomposition level of wavelet is selected based on the Maximum Energy to Shannon Entropy ratio criteria. In addition to this, Energy and Shannon Entropy of the wavelet coefficients are used as two new features along with other statistical parameters as input of the classifier. Some kernel functions and multi kernel function as a new method are used with three strategies for multi classification of gearboxes. The results of fault classification demonstrate that the LSSVM identified the fault categories of gearbox more accurately with multi kernel and OAOT strategy.
2075
2081
Z.
Baniamerian
Z.
Baniamerian
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Iran
radiation oven
dynamic optimization
radiation heat transfer
paint cure window
[[1]. R. Methier, “Notice of mact approval. SIP Permit Application,” No. 14178. State of Georgia, Air Protection Branch., 2003.##[2]. A. Ashrafizadeh, R. Mehdipour and M. Rezvani, “ Design, simulation and thermal analysis of an ED oven,” Mech Eng Conf, Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran 2008.##[3]. A. Ashrafizadeh, R. Mehdipour and M. Rezvani, “ An efficient and accurate numerical simulation method for the paint curing process in auto industries,” ICADME Conference, Malaysia 2009.##[4]. H.H. Lou, and Y.L. Huang, “Integrated modelling and simulation for improved reactive##[5]. drying of clear coat,” J Ind Eng Chem Res, vol.39, no. 2, pp.500-507, 2000.##[6]. J. Zueco and A. Campo, “ Network model for the numerical simulation of transient radiation transfer process between the thick walls of enclosures,” Appl Therm Eng, vol.26, no. 7 pp.673–682, 2006.##[7]. K.J. Daun, H. Erturk, J.R. Howell, “ Inverse design methods for high-temperature systems. " Arabian J Sci Eng vol.27(2C): 3-49, 2002.##[8]. K.J. Daun, F. França, M. Larsen, G. Leduc and J.R. Howell, “ Comparison of methods for inverse design of radiant enclosures,” J Heat Transf, vol.128, no. 3, pp.269-82, 2006.##[9]. K.J. Daun, J.R. Howell and D.P. Morton, “ Design of radiant enclosures using inverse and non-linear,” Inverse Probl Eng, vol.11, no. 6, pp.541–60, 2003.##[10]. K.J. Daun, J.R. Howell and D.P. Morton, “ Geometric optimisation of radiative enclosures through nonlinear programming,” J Numer Heat Transf Part B, vol.43, no. 3, pp.203–19, 2003.##[11]. R. Mehdipour, A. Ashrafizadeh , K.J. Daun and C. Aghanajafi,, “ Dynamic optimisation of a radiation paint cure oven using the nominal cure point criterion,” J Dry Technol, vol.28, no. 2, pp.1405-15, 2010.##[12]. R. Siegel and J. Howell, “ Thermal Radiation Heat transfer." Taylor & Francis, New York, 2002.##[13]. J. Zueco and A. Campo, “ Network model for the numerical simulation of transient radiation transfer process between the thick walls of enclosures,” J Appl Therm Eng, vol.26, pp.673–679, 2006.##[14]. T.T.M. Onyango, D.B. Ingham and D. Lesnic, “ Inverse reconstruction of boundary condition coefficients in one-dimensional transient heat conduction,” Appl Math Comput vol.207, pp.569–575, 2009.##[15]. A. Shidfar and A. Zaker, “ A numerical technique for backward inverse heat conduction problems in one-dimensional space,” Appl Math Comput vol.171, pp.1016–1024, 2005.##[16]. A. Shidfar and R. Pourgholi, “ Numerical approximation of solution of an inverse heat conduction problem based on Legendre polynomials,” Appl Math Comput, vol.175, pp.1366–1374, 2006.##[17]. J. Xiao, L. Jia, Q. Xu, Y. Huang and H.H. Lou, “ ACS–Based dynamic optimisation for curing of polymeric coating,” American Inst Chem Eng, vol.52, no. 4, pp.1410-22, 2006.##[18]. M.A. Mahmoud and, A.E. Ben-Nakhi, “ Neural networks analysis of free laminar convection heat transfer in a partitioned enclosure,” Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul, vol.12, no. 7, pp.1265-1276, 2007.##[19]. A. G. Federov, Lee KH and R. Viskanta, “ Inverse optimal design of the radiant heating in materials processing and manufacturing,”J Mater Eng Perform, vol.7, pp. 719–726, 1998.##[20]. J. Tervo, T. Lyyra-Laitinen, P. Kolmonen, and E. Boman, “ An inverse treatment planning model for intensity modulated radiation therapy with dynamic MLC,” Appl Math Comput, vol.135, pp. 227–250, 2003.##[21]. T. Khan, A. Smirnova, “ inverse problem in diffusion based optical tomography using iteratively regularized Gauss–Newton algorithm,” Appl Math Comput, vol.161: pp.149–170, 2005.##[22]. R. Mehdipour, C. Aghanajafi and A. Ashrafizadeh, “ Optimal design of radiation paint cure ovens using a novel objective function." Pigment Resin Technol, vol.41, pp.240 - 250, 2012.##[23]. A. Ashrafizadeh, R. Mehdipour and C. Aghanajafi, “ A hybrid optimization algorithm for the thermal design of radiation paint cure ovens,” Appl Therm Eng, vol.40, pp.56-63, 2012.##[24]. R.Mehdipour, A. Ashrafizadeh, C. Aghanajafi, “ A numerical design approach for the continuous radiation paint curing ovens in auto industries,” J Color Sci Technol vol.3, no. 2, pp.107-119, 2009.##[25]. Z. Qian, C. Fu and X.T. Xiong XT, “ A modified method for a non-standard inverse heat conduction problem,” Appl Math Comput, vol.180, pp.453–468, 2006.##[26]. Z.J. Shi and J. Shen, “ On step-size estimation of line search methods,” Appl Math Comput, vol.173, pp.360–371, 2006.## ##]
A comparison of different network based modeling methods for prediction of the torque of a SI engine equipped with variable valve timing
2
2
Nowadays, due to increasing the complexity of IC engines, calibration task becomes more severe and the need to use surrogate models for investigating of the engine behavior arises. Accordingly, many black box modeling approaches have been used in this context among which network based models are of the most powerful approaches thanks to their flexible structures. In this paper four network based modeling methods are used and compared to model the behavior of an IC engine: neural networks model (NN), group method of data handling model (GMDH), a hybrid NN and GMDH model (NN-GMDH), and a GMDH model whose structure is determined by genetic algorithm (Genetic-GMDH). The inputs are engine speed, throttle angle, and intake valve opening and closing timing, and the output is the engine brake torque. Results show that NN has the best prediction capability and Genetic-GMDH model has the most flexible and simplest structure and relatively good prediction ability.
.
2082
2096
A.H.
Kakaee
A.H.
Kakaee
Assistant Professor, School of Automotive Engineeringt, Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran
akakaee@iust.ac.ir
B.
Mashhadi
B.
Mashhadi
School of Automotive Engineeringt, Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran
M.
Ghajar
M.
Ghajar
Faculty of Automotive Engineering
Iran
Neural networks
Group method of data handling
Engine torque
Black box modeling
Variable valve timing
[## ##]
Numerical Study on the Crushing Behavior of Square Tubes Under Three Dimensional Oblique Loading
2
2
This study aims to numerically investigate on the crashworthiness of thin-walled square tubes by consideration of 3-D oblique loading. In this type of loading, direction of loading is defined by using two spatial angles relative to the position of the tube. To this aim, finite element (FE) analysis is employed to simulate the loading for 8 different numerical models with different loading orientation. Subsequently, load-displacement diagrams as well as deformation shapes during the loading are derived for each model. Moreover, a study is done on the tube collapse mode for each case. Effect of loading orientation and tube thickness on the maximum crushing load and energy absorption are also studied via a parametric study on the FE simulations. Results indicated a different trend for all cases of 3D oblique loading compared to axial loading. This study highlights the significance of consideration of a 3D orientation in analysis of crushing behavior of thin-walled tubes.
2097
2108
A.
Khalkhali
A.
Khalkhali
Assistant Professor, School of Automotive Engineeringt, Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran
M.
Sarmadi
M.
Sarmadi
School of Automotive Engineeringt, Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran
A.
Bodaghi
A.
Bodaghi
Faculty of Automotive Engineering
Iran
Energy absorption
Three-dimensional oblique loading
Thin-walled square tube
Quasi-static crushing behavior
Collapse mode
ABAQUS/Explicit
[## ##]
Studying Simultaneous Injection of Natural Gas and Gasoline Effect on Dual Fuel Engine Performance and Emissions
2
2
According to the Global Fuel Crisis, it seems necessary to use alternative fuel instead of gasoline. Since the natural gas is cheaper, have higher frequency than gasoline and less pollution, it is a suitable fuel. Many efforts have been done in order to replace gasoline with natural gas. One of the methods is to inject natural gas and gasoline fuel simultaneously and to use the benefits of both fuels. The purpose of this paper is studying natural gas and gasoline blend effect on engine power, torque and emissions. The simulated model was validated in different engine RPMs for gasoline and natural gas, were separately injected into the engine at full load condition. The results of simulation was had good agreement with experiments. The results show that by natural gas and gasoline Simultaneous injection power and torque have been reduced. NOX, HC and CO2 Pollutants change periodically, but their production level is generally lower than gasoline mode, but the CO pollutant increases.
2110
2117
A.
Mirmohamadi
A.
Mirmohamadi
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Iran
Sh.
Alyari shoreh deli
Sh.
Alyari shoreh deli
Mechanical Engineering – Power train
Iran
A.
kalhor
A.
kalhor
-Department of Mechanical Engineering
Iran
Mixture Gas and gasoline
Simultaneous injection
simulation
Engine Performance
[## ##]
The Effects of Changes in Height on the Aerodynamic Performance of Automobiles
2
2
In this study, the fluid flow around a Pride vehicle was solved in a two-dimensional design using numerical methods. To do so, a two-dimensional figure of a Pride was modeled and gridded, and different surfaces were introduced. Then, governing equations the fluid flow was solved for the standard K-ε model and the appropriate boundary conditions. Areas that increased lift and drag forces were specified through studying the results and observing flow lines, pressure distribution, and vortices created around the automobile. In this way, the ideal height for different speeds was determined through examining the changes in those forces at different heights. In this study, the Pride was examined at different heights 80, 120, 160 (standard), 200, and 250 mm for the speeds 10, 20, 33, and 40 m/s. The results showed that lift and drag forces depended on the height of the automobile and changed at different heights
2118
2126
H.
Afshar
H.
Afshar
Department of Mechanical Engineering, East Tehran branch
Iran
ho_afshar@yahoo.com
A.
Fahimi
A.
Fahimi
Mechanical Engineering
Iran
M.A.
Keshvari
M.A.
Keshvari
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Science and Research Branch,
Iran
[## ##]