For more than a century U.S. foreign policywhether conducted by Democrats or Republicans, liberals or conservativeshas been based on the assumption that Americans interests are served best by intervening abroad to secure open markets for U.S. exports, fight potential enemies far from American shores, or engage in democratic nation building. Before the twentieth century, however, a foreign policy of nonintervention was widely considered more desirable, and Washingtons and Jeffersons advice that the republic avoid foreign entanglements was largely heeded.
Opposing the Crusader State: Alternatives to Global Interventionism, edited by Robert Higgs and Carl Close, examines the history of American noninterventionism and its relevance in todays world. Arguing that interventionism is not an appropriate default setting for U.S. foreign policy, the books contributors clarify widespread misunderstandings about noninterventionism, question the wisdom of nation building, debate the validity of democratic-peace theory, and make the case for pursuing a peace strategy based on private-property rights and free trade.
Readers will come away from this book with a richer understanding of the noninterventionist movements in U.S. history, write Higgs and Close in the books introduction. Most important, perhaps, they will have a firmer understanding of why many classical liberals embrace the strengthening of commercial ties between all countries as a means of avoiding war.
Table of Contents
Introduction by Robert Higgs and Carl P. Close
Part I: American Noninterventionism
1. Imperialism, Noninterventionism, and Revolution: Opponents of the Modern American Empire Joseph R. Stromberg
2. New Deal Nemesis: The Old Right Jeffersonians Sheldon Richman
3. On the Brink of World War II: Justus Doenekes Storm on the Horizon Ralph Raico
4. The Republican Road Not Taken: The Foreign Policy Vision of Robert A. Taft Michael T. Hayes
Part II: The Case Against Nation Building
5. The Prospects for Democracy in High-Violence Societies James L. Payne
6. Does Nation Building Work? James L. Payne
7. Did The United States Create Democracy in Germany? James L. Payne
8. A Matter of Small Consequence: U. S. Foreign Policy and the Tragedy of East Timor Jerry K. Sweeney
Part III: Debating the Democratic Peace
9. Democracy and War Ted Galen Carpenter
10. Democracy and War: Reply R. J. Rummel
11. Democracy and War: Rejoinder Ted Galen Carpenter
12. Stealing and Killing: A Property-Rights Theory of Mass Murder Stephen W. Carson
Part IV: Free Trade as a Peace Strategy
13. Commerce, Markets, and Peace: Richard Cobdens Enduring Lessons Edward P. Stringham
14. The Diffusion of Prosperity and Peace by Globalization Erich Weede
About the Editors and Contributors
In the run-up to the 2008 election, Democratic presidential hopefuls pledge to replace the foreign-policy unilateralism and arrogance of the Bush administration with a multilateral approach that is equally meddlesome. Neither the current leading Democratic nor Republican foreign-policy approaches reflect the vision of Americas founders, who believed the republic should differ from its European counterparts by sending goods and ideas, not soldiers and decrees, to foreign shores. (ch. 1)
It is common today to hear World War II called the Good War, and American opponents of entry into Europes war are often caricatured as ignorant appeasers. Yet the anti-interventionist America First Committee included John F. Kennedy, Gerald Ford, novelists Sinclair Lewis and Gore Vidal, poet e. e. cummings, and other respected figures. Legitimate concerns about allying with Stalin, who had murdered millions more people than Hitler, were often ignored or misrepresented. (ch. 3)
Anti-American hostility in the Middle East and elsewhere today is partly a reaction against U.S. support for unpopular regimes. In the late 1940s and early 50s, Republican Senator Robert A. Taft warned that Trumans and Eisenhowers support for non-democratic regimes that might otherwise fall into the Soviet orbit would produce resentment against America. Labeled ostrich-like by many of his contemporaries, Taft now looks like a cleareyed visionary. (ch. 4)
Recent nation-building efforts in Haiti, Afghanistan, and Iraqcountries with traditions of dictatorship, repression, political murder, revolt, and massacreare also unlikely to result in democracy anytime soon. Instead of fostering democracy, attempts to engage in democratic nation building tend to produce 1) truces with gangs and warlords willing to keep a lower profile and 2) puppet governments that eventually become or give way to dictatorship. From 1850 to 2006, Great Britain and the United States sent military forces abroad 51 times to engage in democratic nation building, but they have left behind a lasting democracy in only 14 of those countriesa success rate of just 27 percent. (ch. 5, 6)
Pundits across the spectrum hold post-war Germany as a model of successful democratic nation building by the United States. In reality, from 1945 to 1952, U.S. occupation policy sought not to foster reconstruction or promote democracy, but to wreck Germanys economy, deny it any war-making potential, and punish ordinary Germans. A 1949 article in Commentary magazine exposed Why Democracy Is Losing in Germany. (ch. 7)
Not counting war casualties, an estimated 262 million ordinary citizens were murdered by their own governments in the 20th century. Democratic-peace theorists argue that democracies kill far fewer of their own (and perhaps never make war against each other) because democracy diffuses political power. However, a new theory argues that a more effective way to protect citizens from their governments isnt to promote democratic measures, but rather to strengthen private-property rights. (ch. 12)
Although opponents of globalization view themselves as pro-peace progressives, their support for protectionism actually makes wars more likely. International trade not only makes countries wealthier, but it also fosters peace. Trade between Taiwan and China may be the leading reason war between them hasnt broken out. Activists should take up the cause of promoting stronger commercial ties between countries as a way to promote peace. (ch. 14)
For more than a century U.S. foreign policy, whether conducted by Democrats or Republicans, liberals or conservatives, has been based on the assumption that Americans interests are served best by intervening abroad to secure open markets for U.S. exports, fight potential enemies far from American shores, or engage in democratic nation building. Before the 20th century, however, a foreign policy of nonintervention was widely considered more desirable, and Washingtons and Jeffersons advice that the republic avoid foreign entanglements was largely heeded.
Opposing the Crusader State: Alternatives to Global Interventionism, edited by Robert Higgs and Carl P. Close, examines the history of American noninterventionism and its relevance in todays world. Arguing that intervention is not an appropriate default setting for U.S. foreign policy, the books contributors clarify widespread misunderstandings about noninterventionism, question the wisdom of nation building, debate the validity of democratic-peace theory, and make the case for pursuing a peace strategy that emphasizes private-property rights and free trade.
Readers will come away from this book with a richer understanding of the noninterventionist movements in U.S. history, write Higgs and Close in the books introduction. More important, they will better understand the complexities surrounding democratic nation building and democratic-peace theory, which will enable them to evaluate better not only recent U.S. foreign interventions, but also legislative efforts to promote freedom abroad, such as the Advance Democracy Act of 2005. Most important, perhaps, they will have a firmer understanding of why many classical liberals embrace the strengthening of commercial ties between all countries as a means of avoiding war.
American noninterventionists have often argued that meddling in the affairs of other countries and committing U.S. troops overseas runs counter to the republics founding principles and weakens economic and civil liberties at home. Joseph R. Stromberg develops this theme in chapter 2, Imperialism, Noninterventionism, and Revolution: Opponents of the Modern American Empire. Despite such deviations as James Madisons theory of territorial expansion and the Monroe Doctrine, a noninterventionist foreign policy largely prevailed until the Spanish- American War. William Graham Sumner and other classical liberals predicted that the U.S. military occupation of Spains former possessions would erode republican government and weaken individual liberty at home.
Similarly, the diverse group of public figures who opposed U.S. entry into World War II feared that the country had been led down a path that would result in the loss of freedom, not only domestically, but also in the lands that would likely fall under Soviet control, explains Sheldon Richman in chapter 2, New Deal Nemesis: The Old Right Jeffersonians. Ralph Raico delves further into this critical period, explaining how long-forgotten events of 1939-41 shaped the public debate over U.S. entry into the war in chapter 3, On the Brink of World War II: Justus Doeneckes Storm on the Horizon.
Michael T. Hayes examines the ideas of one of the leading noninterventionists in American politics in chapter 4, The Republican Road Not Taken: The Foreign-Policy Vision of Robert A. Taft. Pursuing regime stability abroad, as Truman and Eisenhower did, Taft argued, exposed Americans to a backlash of resentment from people suffering under the yoke of harsh U.S.-backed governments.
THE CASE AGAINST NATION BUILDING
Many analysts argue that several economic and social conditions must first be met before liberal democracy can take root, but they often neglect the fundamental prerequisite: political elites, and the culture at large, must eschew political violence, argues James L. Payne in chapter 5, The Prospects for Democracy in High-Violence Societies. This neglected truth sheds light on the poor results of efforts to export democracy. Payne examines the lackluster record of U.S. and British attempts to engage in democratic nation building since the mid-19th century in chapter 6, Does Nation Building Work? Politicians and pundits have often cited West Germany as a success story of American nation building, but Payne argues against this claim in chapter 7, Did the United States Create Democracy in Germany? It should not be surprising that U.S. policy during the occupation of 1945 to 1952 did not promote democracy, because the policy did not seek to promote a democratic political culture, but rather to eliminate Germanys war-making potential, de-Nazify German society, and penalize ordinary Germans.
In many cases, democratic nation building has conflicted with other U.S. foreign policy goals. For example, U.S. support for Indonesian President Suharto collided with democratic aspirations in newly independent East Timor in the 1970s, Jerry K. Sweeney argues in chapter 8, A Matter of Small Consequence: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Tragedy in East Timor.
DEBATING THE DEMOCRATIC PEACE
Some analysts argue that democracies rarely, if ever, go to war with each other because democracies are inherently much less warlike with each other. If the theory of democratic peace is correct, it buttresses the case for democratic nation building. How valid and robust is the theory? This question is contentious even among classical liberals, as this section of the book demonstrates.
In chapter 9, Democracy and War, Ted Galen Carpenter criticizes the version of democratic-peace theory found in R. J. Rummels 1997 book Power Kills: Democracy as a Method of Nonviolence, a synthesis of decades of empirical research by Rummel and other democratic-peace theorists. According to Carpenter, Rummel minimizes or ignores alternative explanations for the peace observed among democracies and discounts cases that cast doubt on the peaceful democracies thesis.
R. J. Rummel responds in chapter 10, Democracy and War: Reply, arguing that Carpenters alleged counterexamples to democratic-peace theory are not valid counterexamples. Rummel also claims he has tested and ruled out more alternative explanations for the democratic peace than Carpenter had proposed. Finally, in chapter 11, Democracy and War: Rejoinder, Carpenter challenges the validity of Rummels designation of which countries are truly democratic, arguing that Rummels distinction between hot and cold wars enables him to downplay democracies many proxy wars, covert operations, and close calls with open warfare.
Rummel has argued not only that liberal democracy is the cure for war, but also that it will end the mass murder of civilians by their own government (democide). An alternative theory, which emphasizes violations of private-property rights, better explains democides causes, its oscillations within a given country, and its cures, Stephen W. Carson argues in chapter 12, Stealing and Killing: A Property-Rights Theory of Mass Murder.
FREE TRADE AS A PEACE STRATEGY
Some advocates of market economies passionately support a large military, whereas many who oppose a large military also oppose free markets. These two camps, however, are not the only alternatives. Historically, classical liberals were both supporters of free markets and critics of military adventurism. British parliamentarian and writer Richard Cobden (180465), for example, held that more military entails less market, explains Edward P. Stringham in chapter 13, Commerce, Markets, and Peace: Richard Cobdens Enduring Lessons. Productive British citizens did not benefit from military interventionism, according to Cobden, because it required levels of taxation that hampered the civilian economy. Cobdens viewsprosperity requires peace; peace is more secure when countries have strong trade ties; and liberty is spread more effectively by education and persuasion than by intimidation and coercionare as relevant today as in his day.
Although the economic benefits of trade are widely understood, the international security benefits are not, despite many studies firmly establishing that trade promotes peace. If these studies were better known, many critics of globalization might become supporters. Erich Weede discusses the literature supporting the peace by trade claim in chapter 14, The Diffusion of Prosperity and Peace by Globalization. Weede cautions that the trade-peace link may not prevent wars every time, especially if a country has weak property rights and democratic institutions. Nevertheless, the trade-peace link is very strong. Trade between China and Taiwan, for example, seems to have pacified what otherwise might be an extremely hostile relationship.
The policy implications of the capitalist-peace strategy are simple: promote economic freedom and globalization, writes Weede. If the policy succeeds, one gets more prosperity, more democracy, less civil war, and less interstate war. The political challenges of implementing this approach are daunting, especially in poor and conflictridden countries, Weede notes, but it is more likely to be adopted if Western countries practice it consistently and thus become models for others to emulate.
If you want to know why making the world safe for democracy is both foolhardy and impossible, read Opposing the Crusader State. Here in a nutshell is the best scholarship available on how our warrior governments went wrong and why their non-defensive wars have diminished, rather than enhanced, our freedoms.
JUDGE ANDREW P. NAPOLITANO, Senior Judicial Analyst, Fox News Channel; author, The Constitution in Exile
Opposing the Crusader State deserves to be widely read and discussed. The issues are vital, critical; the timing perfect; the editors knowledgeable and selective; the writers expert, thoughtful and articulate.
AMBASSADOR EDWARD L. PECK, former Chief of Mission in Iraq
Opposing the Crusader State offers insight into the long and often ignored American political tradition of opposing foreign interventions. Once again, we are learning the hard way the foolishness of nation building beyond our borders, interests, and knowledge. This important book should be required reading for our many would be global democracy spreaders.
HARVEY M. SAPOLSKY, Professor of Public Policy and Organization and former Director, Security Studies Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
For those disillusioned by the American intervention in Iraq, the insightful book Opposing the Crusader State shows how the U.S. can protect its interests by embracing a more humble foreign policy.
LAWRENCE J. KORB, former Assistant Secretary, U.S. Department of Defense
In Opposing the Crusader State, Higgs and Close (both, Independent Institute) focus on U.S. foreign policy alternatives to global intervention. They argue that until the 20th century, U.S. foreign policy pursued economic expansion without military intervention in foreign countries. Yet starting with the Spanish American War, the U.S. became a crusader state, using military might in ways that compromised the nations founding principles at high economic cost. . . . The value of this book is twofold: first, it challenges the use of military intervention as the primary tool to promote and protect U.S. interests; second, it raises critical questions of war and peace while offering alternatives to military intervention. Recommended.
Opposing the Crusader State is a zesty debunking of some of the most dangerous foreign policy frauds of our era.
JAMES BOVARD, author, Terrorism and Tyranny and Lost Rights
Can America effectively export Democracy through military intervention? Opposing the Crusader State is a thought-provoking and highly readable book that will help you shape your answer to this question, outlining a disappointing history of Americas past military forays into democracy building, heated discussions of the role of democracy and property rights in mitigating warfare, and a policy of reducing foreign intervention and promoting world-wide free trade.
PRICE V. FISHBACK, Frank and Clara Kramer Professor of Economics, University of Arizona
Contemporary public discourse on U.S. foreign policy has become largely a battle of sound bites, with even our governments highest ranking offi cials addressing complex security and diplomatic matters in slogans and simplistic propositions. 24-7 news coverage only exacerbates this dumbing-down of foreign policy. Lost in all this is any deep understanding of either the principles of non-intervention (a policy that served America so well for so long) or of the aggressively interventionist foreign policy that has become the hallmark of recent administrations (both Republican and Democratic). Opposing the Crusader State pulls together in one volume enough substantive and timely writings on why current American foreign policy is so disjointed, costly, and self-destructive as to make even the most die-hard interventionists think twice before applauding Washingtons next foreign invasion or nation-building folly.
BOB BARR, former U.S. Congressman and senior member, House Judiciary Committee
One need not agree with all of views on intervention found in the thoughtful book, Opposing the Crusader State, to recognize that it provides a tremendously useful survey of the history, rationales, and contemporary relevance of opponents of military activism. Higgs and Close have brought commentaries on the past and present together in clear and cogent way that will challenge even skeptical readers.
RICHARD K. BETTS, Director, Arnold A. Saltzman Institute
Opposing the Crusader State argues from various perspectives that the United States has a core commitment to the principle of individual liberty, which is best served through limited government and respect for the rights of the individual. Yet, the United States has increasingly undermined its ability to fulfill this commitment through an ever more ambitious imperialistic and interventionist foreign policy. . . . Opposing the Crusader State provides ample evidence that this drive is ineffective and has little chance of success. Moreover, it ultimately threatens the prosperity and liberty at home it is purportedly designed to protect. The United States government should return to its more traditionally defined role of protecting national security, and trust the millions of U.S. citizens, organizations, missionaries, and business men and women to carry out the more complex task of communicating the value and lessons of freedom, justice and equality to a broader world.
It doesnt seem to matter how badly Americas foreign policy of global intervention has failed. The governing elite advocate more and more extensive intervention. . . . In Opposing the Crusader State Higgs and Close marshal a range of essays debunking the prevailing interventionist consensus. . . . Most Americans want peace. Most American politicians want war, or at least the sort of interventionist foreign policy that leads to war. How to help the former to rein in the latter? Higgs and Close provide a mix of history, theory, and experience that should aid development of a new, noninterventionist foreign policy.
The editors of Opposing the Crusader State indicate that the volume is intended to contribute to a more peaceful and prosperous world by reconsidering current approaches to international security and economic development. The fourteen chapters (not including the Introduction authored by the editors) critically examine U.S. foreign policy with a particular emphasis on the relevance of noninterventionism as an alternative to current policy. This book is not intended to be a specific contribution to Austrian economics. That said, Austrian economists will find this volume intriguing because they have long engaged in the economic and historical analysis of foreign policy and global interventionism. In light of the United Statess long history of global interventionism, the insights of this volume and the writings of Austrian economists on these issues are of the utmost contemporary importance. . . . Opposing the Crusader State is an important volume. It provides numerous insights regarding the history of U.S. foreign policy, as well as the limitations on what foreign policy can achieve. The volume also offers bold alternatives to the current policy of global interventionism. Scholars and policymakers from a variety of disciplines will find the contributions of value. Austrian economists will find the volume of interest, especially when considered in the context of earlier writings by Mises, Rothbard and Hayek. Much research remains to be done on U.S. foreign policy and global interventions. For example, what is the best strategy toward weak and failed states? What policies should developed countries adopt to deal with the bottom billion? . . .What are the costs and benefits of an American empire? . . . What are the costs and potential global bads associated with these interventions? These are just some of the open issues in the realm of international relations and development. This volume provides an excellent starting point for addressing these and other related issues.
REVIEW OF AUSTRIAN ECONOMICS
"Opposing the Crusader State: Alternatives to Global Intervention, edited by Robert Higgs and Carl B. Close, questions the wisdom of ever using military strength to "impose democracy" on other nations. Published by the Independent Institute, the book argues nation-building is unlikely to create democracy any time in the near future in places like Afghanistan, Iraq or Haiticountries with long histories of dictatorship, repression, revolts and political massacres. Trying to establish democracy through military occupation is not a coherent, defensible policy. There is no theory on which it is based; it has no proven technique or methodology; and no experts know how to do it, writes political scientist James L. Payne in his essay Does Nation Building Work? The record shows that it usually fails, and even when it appears to succeed, the positive result owes more to historical evolution and local political culture than to anything nation builders might have done. Payne details how our Iraq invasion devastated that nation's local infrastructure, increasing hostility to the ongoing U.S. occupation. Opposing the Crusader State argues the development of international trade does far more to improve less-developed societies than military invasions. An imposition of democracy in poor and politically unstable countries, as currently being attempted in Afghanistan and Iraq, is at least as likely to produce hostility as democratization and stability, writes German sociologist Erich Weede in his essay The Diffusion of Prosperity and Peace by Globalization. Why should a country be surprised when it is attacked after its government has involved itself in far-off concerns? Weede asks. . . . If Obama considers these insights before his decision about Afghanistan, perhaps he will avoid repeating the tragic escalation in Vietnam launched 44 years ago in 1965.
CHARLESTON (WV) GAZETTE
Robert Higgs is Senior Fellow in Political Economy for the Independent Institute and editor of The Independent Review. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the Johns Hopkins University, and he has been a member of the faculty at the University of Washington, Lafayette College, and Seattle University, and a visiting professor at the University of Economics in Prague. He is the author of eight books, the most recent of which are Depression, War, and Cold War and Neither Liberty nor Safety, and the editor or co-editor of five books. A contributor to many scholarly volumes, he is also the author of more than 100 articles and reviews in the professional journals of economics, demography, history, and public policy and the author of many articles in the popular press. He was named to the Templeton Foundations Honor Roll for Colleges and Universities in 1989. He received the Distinguished Scholar Award from the Association of Private Enterprise Education in 1993; the Friedrich von Wieser Memorial Prize for Excellence in Economic Education from the Prague Conference on Political Economy in 2006; the Thomas S. Szasz Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Cause of Civil Liberties from the Center for Independent Thought in 2006; and the Gary G. Schlarbaum Prize for Lifetime Achievement in Liberty from the Ludwig von Mises Institute in 2007.
Carl P. Close is Research Fellow and Academic Affairs Director at the Independent Institute and Assistant Editor of The Independent Review. He is co-editor (with Robert Higgs) of The Challenge of Liberty (2006) and Re-Thinking Green (2005). His research interests include environmental policy, the history of economic and political thought, and the political economy of propaganda. He received his masters degree in economics from the University of California, Santa Barbara.