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Working Papers

Working Papers are research articles that have been submitted to the Independent Institute or written by our Fellows, but have not yet been published or peer reviewed. Independent maintains this index of working papers in order to help disseminate, discuss, and improve important ideas. Authors welcome informed comments. If you would like to submit your paper for possible inclusion please email the paper’s abstract to Independent’s Research Director, William F. Shughart II.

The Creation of Knowledge in Society: Waste Defined by Property and Exchange
Art Carden | July 25, 2017

More and Better: Resources Defined Through Property and Exchange
Art Carden | May 5, 2017

Of Arms, Freedom, and Capitalism
What Piers Morgan Does Not Know

Charles A. Breiterman | February 5, 2015

Retail Innovations in American Economic History
The Rise of Mass-Market Merchandisers

Art Carden | July 26, 2012

A Brief History of Checkpoints (And What to do About Them)
Patrick Adams | April 1, 2012

Iraq, Afghanistan, War, and Money: A Look at Two Presidencies
Anthony Gregory | March 7, 2011

Life Expectancy, Health Care, and Economics
Kirby R. Cundiff | November 17, 2010

The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Political Economy of California Water Allocation
Leo K. Simon, Susan Stratton Sayre, Rachael E. Goodhue | September 22, 2010

Private Policing in San Francisco
Edward P. Stringham | December 21, 2009

Keys to Economics of Global Warming
A Critique of the Dismal Theorem

Sungno Niggol Seo | November 3, 2009

Internal Enforcement
The Political Economy of Immigration

Keith D. Malone | October 30, 2009

Love’s Imperative
A Study on Kant and Kolbe

José Maria J. Yulo | August 18, 2009

Privatizing the Adjudication of Disputes
Bryan Caplan, Edward P. Stringham | October 17, 2007

Jacob K. Javits and Latin American Economic Integration
Salvador Rivera Ph.D. | August 20, 2007

Mere Economic Science
C. S. Lewis and the Poverty of Naturalism

David J. Theroux | March 6, 2007

The Radical Libertarian Political Economy of 19th Century Preacher David Lipscomb
Edward P. Stringham | December 14, 2006

Taxing Development: The Law and Economics of Traffic Impact Fees
Edward P. Stringham, Benjamin Powell, John B. Estill | December 12, 2006

Somalia After State Collapse: Chaos or Improvement?
Benjamin Powell, Ryan Ford, Alex Nowrasteh | November 30, 2006

Is Future Conflict with China Unavoidable?
Ivan Eland | January 19, 2006

A Geo-Spatial Macro-Economic Analysis of Climate Change
Sungno Niggol Seo | August 18, 2005

An Experimental Investigation of Hobbesian Jungles
Bart J. Wilson, Benjamin Powell | May 23, 2005

Development Aid and Economic Freedom: Are They Related?
Benjamin Powell, Matt E. Ryan | May 9, 2005

Government and the Economy: The World Wars
Robert Higgs | April 20, 2005

Government and the Economy since World War II
Robert Higgs | April 20, 2005

Is Cybersecurity a Public Good? Evidence from the Financial Services Industry
Benjamin Powell | March 14, 2005

“Not Merely Perfidious but Ungrateful”: The U.S. Takeover of West Florida
Robert Higgs | March 14, 2005

State Development Planning: Did it Create an East Asian Miracle?
Benjamin Powell | September 28, 2004

Sweatshops and Third World Living Standards: Are the Jobs Worth the Sweat?
Benjamin Powell, David B. Skarbek | September 27, 2004

Coasian Contracts in the Coeur d’Alene Mining District
Robert Higgs | June 2, 2004

Institutional Foundations of Economic Freedom
A time-series cross-section analysis

Xavier de Vanssay, Zane Spindler, Vincent Hildebrand | May 20, 2004

Prostitution and Sex Crimes
Kirby R. Cundiff | April 8, 2004

Individual Unemployment Accounts
Stephen M. Colarelli, Lawrence Brunner | October 5, 2003

The Ongoing Growth of Government in the Economically Advanced Countries
Robert Higgs | October 3, 2003

Do Off-Label Drug Practices Argue Against FDA Efficacy Requirements?
Testing an Argument by Structured Conversations with Experts

Alexander T. Tabarrok, Daniel B. Klein | October 2, 2003

The Lighthouse as a Private-Sector Collective Good
Fred E. Foldvary | October 1, 2003

Wartime Socialization of Investment
A Reassessment of U.S. Capital Formation in the 1940s

Robert Higgs | June 2, 2003



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