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Working Papers

Working Papers are research articles that have been submitted to the Independent Institute or written by our Fellows, but have not yet been published or peer reviewed. Independent maintains this index of working papers in order to help disseminate, discuss, and improve important ideas. Authors welcome informed comments. If you would like to submit your paper for possible inclusion please email the paper’s abstract to Independent’s Research Director, William F. Shughart II.

Do Off-Label Drug Practices Argue Against FDA Efficacy Requirements?
Testing an Argument by Structured Conversations with Experts

Daniel B. Klein | October 2, 2003

Nation of Origin Bias and the Enforcement of Immigration Laws by the Immigration and Naturalization Service
Brett A. King | June 1, 2001

Public Versus Private Initiative in Arctic Exploration
The Effects of Incentives and Organizational Structure

Jonathan M. Karpoff | June 1, 2000

Do Parties Benefit from Electoral Manipulation?
Electoral Laws and Heresthetics in Poland, 1989-1993

Marek M. Kaminski | March 2, 2001

You Get What You Pay For: Result-Based Compensation for Health Care
David A. Hyman | April 7, 2001

Institutional Foundations of Economic Freedom
A time-series cross-section analysis

Vincent Hildebrand | May 20, 2004

Government and the Economy: The World Wars
Robert Higgs | April 20, 2005

Government and the Economy since World War II
Robert Higgs | April 20, 2005

“Not Merely Perfidious but Ungrateful”: The U.S. Takeover of West Florida
Robert Higgs | March 14, 2005

Coasian Contracts in the Coeur d’Alene Mining District
Robert Higgs | June 2, 2004

The Ongoing Growth of Government in the Economically Advanced Countries
Robert Higgs | October 3, 2003

Wartime Socialization of Investment
A Reassessment of U.S. Capital Formation in the 1940s

Robert Higgs | June 2, 2003

The Changing United States Health Care System
The Effect of Competition on Structure and Performance

Robert B. Helms | April 4, 2001

Runaway Judges? Selection Effects and the Jury
Eric A. Helland | September 2, 1999

The Effect of Electoral Institutions on Tort Awards
Eric A. Helland | September 1, 1999

Do Civil and Political Repression Really Boost Foreign Direct Investments?
Philipp W. Harms | May 3, 2001

Cooption and Repression in the Soviet Union
Herschel I. Grossman | December 7, 1999

The State: Agent or Proprietor?
Herschel I. Grossman | December 3, 1999

Iraq, Afghanistan, War, and Money: A Look at Two Presidencies
Anthony Gregory | March 7, 2011

The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Political Economy of California Water Allocation
Rachael E. Goodhue | September 22, 2010

Cooption and Repression in the Soviet Union
Dmitriy Gershenson | December 7, 1999

Somalia After State Collapse: Chaos or Improvement?
Ryan Ford | November 30, 2006

The Lighthouse as a Private-Sector Collective Good
Fred E. Foldvary | October 1, 2003

Conflicts of Interest in the Hollywood Film Industry
Darren Filson | April 1, 2000

Taxing Development: The Law and Economics of Traffic Impact Fees
John B. Estill | December 12, 2006

Is Future Conflict with China Unavoidable?
Ivan Eland | January 19, 2006

International Money and Common Currencies in Historical Perspective
Gerald P. Dwyer, Jr. | May 1, 2002

Democracy, Spontaneous Order and Peace
Implications for the Classical Liberal Critique of Democratic Politics

Gus diZerega | January 3, 2000

Institutional Foundations of Economic Freedom
A time-series cross-section analysis

Xavier de Vanssay | May 20, 2004

Constitutional Design and Economic Freedom
Xavier de Vanssay | March 1, 2001

Litigation versus Legislation
Forum Shopping by Rent-Seekers

Christopher Curran, John F. Curran | October 6, 1999

Life Expectancy, Health Care, and Economics
Kirby R. Cundiff | November 17, 2010

Prostitution and Sex Crimes
Kirby R. Cundiff | April 8, 2004

Homicide Rates and Substance Control Policy
Kirby R. Cundiff | May 1, 2001

Nation of Origin Bias and the Enforcement of Immigration Laws by the Immigration and Naturalization Service
Jim F. Couch | June 1, 2001

Do Good Laws Make Good Citizens?
An Economic Analysis of Internalizing Legal Values

Robert D. Cooter | April 8, 2001

Individual Unemployment Accounts
Stephen M. Colarelli | October 5, 2003

The Statute that Time Forgot
18 U.S.C. 3501 and the Overhauling of Miranda

Paul G. Cassell | December 1, 1999

The Creation of Knowledge in Society: Waste Defined by Property and Exchange
Art Carden | July 25, 2017

More and Better: Resources Defined Through Property and Exchange
Art Carden | May 5, 2017

Retail Innovations in American Economic History
The Rise of Mass-Market Merchandisers

Art Carden | July 26, 2012

Privatizing the Adjudication of Disputes
Bryan Caplan | October 17, 2007

Rational Irrationality and the Microfoundations of Political Failure
Bryan Caplan | October 5, 1999

Standing Tiebout on His Head
Tax Capitalization and the Monopoly Power of Local Governments

Bryan Caplan | October 4, 1999

When Is Two Better than One?
How Federalism Mitigates and Intensifies Imperfect Political Competition

Bryan Caplan | October 3, 1999

The Logic of Collective Belief
Bryan Caplan | October 2, 1999

Has Leviathan Been Bound?
A Theory of Imperfectly Constrained Government with Evidence from the States

Bryan Caplan | October 1, 1999

Individual Unemployment Accounts
Lawrence Brunner | October 5, 2003

Of Arms, Freedom, and Capitalism
What Piers Morgan Does Not Know

Charles A. Breiterman | February 5, 2015