Vladimir Lenin is often portrayed sympathetically as a leader who was willing to tolerate open discussion and debate, leading to speculation that the Soviet Union would have developed a more humane form of socialism had he lived. Yet, in one of his last major acts, Lenin initiated the deportation or internal exile of non-Communist physicians, which soon broadened into a general witch-hunt against independent intellectuals and professionals.
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|Other Independent Review articles by Paul R. Gregory|
|Spring 2018||One Day We Will Live without Fear|
|Fall 2017||The Black Swan of the Russian Revolution|