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Volume 13  Number 4  •  Spring 2009
All Issues:  

The Ship of Philosophers
How the Early USSR Dealt with Dissident Intellectuals
By Paul R. Gregory
This article appeared in the Spring 2009 issue of The Independent Review

Vladimir Lenin is often portrayed sympathetically as a leader who was willing to tolerate open discussion and debate, leading to speculation that the Soviet Union would have developed a more humane form of socialism had he lived. Yet, in one of his last major acts, Lenin initiated the deportation or internal exile of “non-Communist” physicians, which soon broadened into a general witch-hunt against independent intellectuals and professionals.

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Other Independent Review articles by Paul R. Gregory
    Spring 2018   One Day We Will Live without Fear
    Fall 2017   The Black Swan of the Russian Revolution