Vladimir Lenin is often portrayed sympathetically as a leader who was willing to tolerate open discussion and debate, leading to speculation that the Soviet Union would have developed a more humane form of socialism had he lived. Yet, in one of his last major acts, Lenin initiated the deportation or internal exile of “non-Communist” physicians, which soon broadened into a general witch-hunt against independent intellectuals and professionals.

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Other Independent Review articles by Paul R. Gregory
    Spring 2018   One Day We Will Live without Fear
    Fall 2017   The Black Swan of the Russian Revolution