Despite a few lapses into over-the-top liberal bashing, conservative pundit Jonah Goldberg mostly attempts a sober identification of key intellectual connections between contemporary American liberalism and early twentieth-century European fascism in Liberal Fascism: The Secret History of the American Left, from Mussolini to the Politics of Meaning (2008). His chapter on Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal is particularly effective because it documents leftist intellectuals’ approval of aspects of the New Deal they considered similar to Italian fascism.