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Volume 13  Number 3  •  Winter 2009
All Issues:  

Health Insurance Before the Welfare State
The Destruction of Self-Help by State Intervention
By Pavel Chalupníček, Luká Dvořák
This article appeared in the Winter 2009 issue of The Independent Review

Fraternal organizations and friendly societies provided health insurance for hundreds of thousands of Americans and Britons before the surge of the welfare state. Their rapid disappearance underscores the fragility of voluntary institutions when challenged by government power.