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Volume 22  Number 2  •  Fall 2017
Other Issues:  

The Black Swan of the Russian Revolution
By Paul R. Gregory
This article appeared in the Fall 2017 issue of The Independent Review

Like the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian Revolution caught almost everyone off guard. Contrary to Marxist-Leninist dogma, the Bolsheviks’ victory resulted not from communism’s alleged inevitability but rather from a series of coincidences and accidents that could have been otherwise.

This article will be posted in full nine months after its initial print publication. To read it now, please download the issue via the Independent Review app (available on iOS, Kindle Fire and Android) for $2.99, or buy a print copy of this issue for $12.00.


Other Independent Review articles by Paul R. Gregory
    Spring 2009   The Ship of Philosophers: How the Early USSR Dealt with Dissident Intellectuals







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