Many states initiated electricity liberalization and deregulation in the 1990s, but retail competition for residential customers has remained sluggish, and innovation in products, services, and pricing has been uncommon. The restructuring efforts yielded lackluster results largely because they failed to lift regulations that hinder experimentation by producers and consumers.
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|Other Independent Review articles by L. Lynne Kiesling|
|Winter 2016||The Connected Home and an Electricity-Market Platform for the Twenty-First Century|
|Summer 2014||U.S. Energy Policy and the Pursuit of Failure|
|Fall 1996||Public Goods and Private Communities: The Market Provision of Social Services|