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Volume 16  Number 4  •  Spring 2012
Other Issues:  

The “European Miracle”: Warrior Aristocrats, Spirit of Liberty, and Competition as a Discovery Process
By Andrei Znamenski
This article appeared in the Spring 2012 issue of The Independent Review

In The Uniqueness of Western Civilization, historian Ricardo Duchesne credits the liberty and creativity of the West to a strong sense of personal autonomy that self-centered Indo-European warrior aristocrats planted throughout Europe as they migrated from the Ukrainian steppes before the first millennium B.C.E. For theoretical insight about the unfolding of the Western spirit of liberty, Duchesne turns to Hegel and Nietzsche, but a better choice would have been Hayek.

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