From Smith to Menger to Hayek: Liberalism in the Spontaneous-Order Tradition
By Steven G. Horwitz
This article appeared in the Summer 2001 issue of The Independent Review


Both the left and the right have recently attacked the classical liberals for their assumptions of “hyperrationalism” and “extreme atomism.” Those criticisms fall flat when directed at the classical liberals of the Scottish Enlightenment tradition, who argued that many useful human institutions (including language and the market) are not the result of conscious design but are unintended consequences of social interaction.

Other Independent Review articles by Steven G. Horwitz
    Winter 2013   The Reality of the Wartime Economy: More Historical Evidence on Whether World War II Ended the Great Depression
    Spring 2009   Wal-Mart to the Rescue: Private Enterprise’s Response to Hurricane Katrina
    Winter 2009   Fascism: Italian, German, and American
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