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Research Articles

These articles, written by Independent Institute Research Fellows, were originally published in other publications, and are republished here. For other research articles, please see our Policy Reports, Working Papers, and The Independent Review.

Adam Smith, Adam Ferguson, and the Division of Labour
Ronald Hamowy | August 1, 1968

Banning a Risky Product Cannot Improve Any Consumer’s Welfare (Properly Understood), with Applications to FDA Testing Requirements
Robert Higgs | February 13, 2009

A Revealing Window on the U.S. Economy in Depression and War
Hours Worked, 1929–1950

Robert Higgs | February 2, 2009

If Men Were Angels: The Basic Analytics of the State versus Self-government
Robert Higgs | June 11, 2007

Military-Economic Fascism: How Business Corrupts Government, and Vice Versa
Robert Higgs | January 22, 2007

From the Armistice to the Great Depression
Robert Higgs | December 1, 2006

Fear: The Foundation of Every Government’s Power
Robert Higgs | May 17, 2005

How the Western Cattlemen Created Property Rights
Robert Higgs | March 1, 2005

The Greatest Privatization Ever
Robert Higgs | June 1, 2004

Truman’s Attempt to Seize the Steel Industry
Robert Higgs | March 1, 2004

How the Federal Government Got into the Ocean-Shipping Business
Robert Higgs | November 1, 2003

Why Grover Cleveland Vetoed the Texas Seed Bill
Robert Higgs | July 1, 2003

A Tale of Two Brain Trusts
Robert Higgs | October 1, 2002

Thank God for the Nation State?
Robert Higgs | March 15, 2002

In the Name of Emergency
Robert Higgs | October 17, 2001

World War II and the Triumph of Keynesianism
Robert Higgs | October 8, 2001

From Central Planning to the Market
The American Transition, 1945-1947

Robert Higgs | September 1, 1999

How War Amplified Federal Power in the Twentieth Century
Robert Higgs | July 1, 1999

The Mythology of Roosevelt and the New Deal
Robert Higgs | September 1, 1998

War and Leviathan in Twentieth-Century America
Conscription as the Keystone

Robert Higgs | April 1, 1996

World War II and the Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex
Robert Higgs | May 1, 1995

Nineteen Neglected Consequences of Income Redistribution
Robert Higgs | December 5, 1994

The Cold War Economy
Opportunity Costs, Ideology, and the Politics of Crisis

Robert Higgs | July 1, 1994

Public Opinion: A Powerful Predictor of U.S. Defense Spending
Robert Higgs | October 1, 1993

Profits of U.S. Defense Contractors
Robert Higgs | March 13, 1992

Wartime Prosperity? A Reassessment of the U.S. Economy in the 1940s
Robert Higgs | March 1, 1992

Eighteen Problematic Propositions in the Analysis of the Growth of Government
Robert Higgs | January 1, 1991

Beware the Pork-Hawk: In Pursuit of Reelection, Congress Sells Out the Nation’s Defense
Robert Higgs | June 1, 1989

Do Legislators’ Votes Reflect Constituency Preference?
A Simple Way to Evaluate the Senate

Robert Higgs | January 1, 1989

Crisis and Quasi-Corporatist Policy-Making: The U.S. Case in Historical Perspective
Robert Higgs | November 1, 1988

Hard Coals Make Bad Law: Congressional Parochialism Versus National Defense
Robert Higgs | March 1, 1988

Economic Warfare and Private Property Rights
Recent Episodes and their Constitutionality

Robert Higgs | September 1, 1987

National Emergency and the Erosion of Private Property Rights
Robert Higgs | January 1, 1987

National Emergency and Private Property Rights
Historical Relations and Present Conditions

Robert Higgs | September 1, 1986

Crisis, Bigger Government, and Ideological Change
Two Hypotheses on the Ratchet Phenomenon

Robert Higgs | January 1, 1985

Legally Induced Technical Regress in the Washington Salmon Fishery
Robert Higgs | June 30, 1982

Inflation and the Destruction of the Free Market Economy
Robert Higgs | April 1, 1979

The Bulgarian Economic Growth and Transition Project
Peter J. Hill | September 24, 2009

Agriculture in Bulgaria
Peter J. Hill | October 1, 1990

The Environment in Bulgaria
Peter J. Hill | October 1, 1990

Income-Expenditure Elasticities of Less-Healthy Consumption Goods
Adam J. Hoffer | March 29, 2017

Federal Government Growth Before the New Deal
Randall G. Holcombe | September 1, 1997

Public Opinion: A Powerful Predictor of U.S. Defense Spending
Anthony Kilduff | October 1, 1993

Armed Resistance to Crime
The Prevalence and Nature of Self-Defense with a Gun

Gary Kleck | June 30, 2016

Economists Against the FDA
Daniel B. Klein | September 1, 2000

Discovery and Economic Freedom
Daniel B. Klein | September 1, 1997

Disparity of Tropospheric and Surface Temperature Trends: New Evidence
Paul C. Knappenberger | May 17, 2017

In Defense of Markets and Misers
Dwight R. Lee | April 1, 1998

The Perversity of Doing Good at Others’ Expense
Dwight R. Lee | September 1, 1997

Should Profits Be Shared with Workers?
Dwight R. Lee | June 1, 1997



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