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The Independent Institute
Open Letter

An Open Letter from 539 Economists from all 50 States on Health Care Policy Reform


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Guide to Other Internet Resources on Price Controls in Health Care

Dear President Clinton and All Members of Congress:

For thousands of years, governments have tried to control prices. The universal experience has been that price controls produce shortages, black markets, reduced quality, and economic hardship.

Now, once again, programs to control health care prices are on the policy agenda. Under the guise of controlling Medicare costs and shielding the elderly from "unfair" prescription-drug prices, current proposals would restrict discounts on drug prices, cap health care spending, and limit insurance premiums. Among those adversely affected would be hospitals, members of managed care organizations, public health clinics, and government programs such as Medicaid and the Veterans Health System, which, because of their mass-buying power, are able to negotiate favorable drug prices for patients.

In countries with price controls, health care services are severely rationed. Patients wait months and sometimes years for surgery, suffering significant harm to health, even death, as a result. Government bureaucrats, rather than doctors or patients, select treatments. Pharmaceutical innovation languishes. In recent decades, American health care firms have created hundreds of new drugs, devices, and other medical products that have saved millions of lives, not only in the United States but around the world. The best way to save millions more is to enhance the incentives to research, develop, and market new health care products. Existing price controls and other trade restrictions affecting health care goods and services should be removed in order to encourage dynamic entrepreneurship in competitive markets. The result will be lower prices, greater innovation and higher quality.

Despite claims to the contrary, price controls do not reduce medical costs. Nor do they call forth improved health care services. Instead, they produce lower-quality medical care, reduced innovation, and costly new bureaucracies to monitor compliance, adding to the burdens of health care providers already entangled in red tape. Price controls harm consumers of medical services, especially those most in need of health care services.

We urge you to oppose all forms of price controls in any health care reform.

539 economists and other scholars from all fifty states and the District of Columbia

  • Burton Abrams, University of Delaware
  • Douglas K. Adie, Ohio University
  • Ademola Aiyegoro, Howard University
  • Armen A. Alchian, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Donald L. Alexander, Western Michigan University
  • Lawrence Alexander, University of San Diego
  • Michael V. Alexeev, Indiana University
  • William R. Allen, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Ogden O. Allsbrook, University of Georgia
  • Lee J. Alston, University of Illinois
  • Ryan C. Amacher, University of Texas, Arlington
  • Curt L. Anderson, University of Minnesota
  • Gary M. Anderson, California State University, Northridge
  • Robert G. Anderson, Hillsdale College
  • Geoffrey T. Andron, Houston-Tillotson College
  • Robert A. Anthony, George Mason University
  • Dominick T. Armentano, University of Hartford
  • George B. N. Ayittey, George Washington University
  • Charles W. Baird, California State University, Hayward
  • Robert N. Baird, Case Western Reserve University
  • Samuel H. Baker, College of William & Mary
  • Charles D. Baker, Sr., Northeastern University
  • A. Paul Ballantyne, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
  • Badi Baltagi, Texas A & M University
  • King Banaian, St. Cloud State University
  • Andy H. Barnett, Auburn University
  • William Barnett, II, Loyola University New Orleans
  • L. Dwayne Barney, Boise State University
  • Richard N. Bean, University of Houston
  • James P. Beckwith, Jr., North Carolina Central University
  • E. Calvin Beisner, Covenant College
  • Don Bellante, University of South Florida
  • James T. Bennett, George Mason University
  • Bruce L. Benson, Florida State University
  • John E. Berthoud, National Taxpayers Union
  • John J. Bethune, University of Tennessee
  • Mark Bils, University of Rochester
  • George Bittlingmayer, University of California, Davis
  • M. Gale Blalock, University of Evansville
  • Walter E. Block, University of Central Arkansas
  • Patrick M. Boarman, National University of San Diego
  • Peter J. Boettke, George Mason University
  • Cecil E. Bohanon, Ball State University
  • Ben W. Bolch, Rhodes College
  • Thomas E. Borcherding, Claremont Graduate University
  • George H. Borts, Brown University
  • Samuel Bostaph, University of Dallas
  • Donald J. Boudreaux, Foundation for Economic Education
  • David F. Bradford, Princeton University
  • Scott Bradford, Brigham Young University
  • Gordon L. Brady, George Mason University
  • Mark Brandly, Ball State University
  • Charles H. Breeden, Marquette University
  • William Breit, Trinity University
  • Dennis Brennen, Harper College
  • Wayne T. Brough, Citizens for a Sound Economy
  • Andrzej Brzeski, University of California, Davis
  • M. Northrup Buechner, St. John Õs University
  • Henry N. Butler, University of Kansas
  • Richard J. Butler, University of Minnesota
  • Bruce J. Caldwell, University of North Carolina, Greensboro
  • John E. Calfee, American Enterprise Institute
  • Rondo Cameron, Emory University
  • Colin D. Campbell, Dartmouth College
  • Noel D. Campbell, North Georgia College & State University
  • Bryan Caplan, George Mason University
  • Tony Caporale, Ohio University
  • Thomas F. Cargill, University of Nevada
  • J. Lon Carlson, Illinois State University
  • Bo A. Carlsson, Case Western Reserve University
  • William J. Carney, Emory University
  • Phillip P. Caruso, Western Michigan University
  • Satyajit Chatterjee, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
  • Gregory Chaudoin, Loyola University
  • John Chilton, University of South Carolina
  • John S. Chipman, University of Minnesota
  • Barry R. Chiswick, University of Illinois, Chicago
  • Carl F. Christ, Johns Hopkins University
  • John Church, Louisiana State University
  • William M. Clark, University of Oklahoma
  • Jeffrey R. Clark, Jr., University of Tennessee
  • Kenneth W. Clarkson, University of Miami
  • Carl P. Close, The Independent Institute
  • John P. Cochran, University of Tennessee
  • Howard Cochran, Jr., Belmont University
  • Mark A. Cohen, Vanderbilt University
  • John L. Conant, Indiana State University
  • Roger D. Congleton, George Mason University
  • Roy E. Cordato, Campbell University
  • Tyler Cowen, George Mason University
  • Donald Cox, Boston College
  • Eleanor D. Craig, University of Delaware
  • Robert W. Crandall, Brookings Institution
  • Deborah L. Cunningham, Virginia Tech University
  • Coldwell Daniel, , III, University of Memphis
  • Jerry W. Dauterive, Loyola University New Orleans
  • Audrey B. Davidson, University of Louisville
  • David G. Davies, Duke University
  • Otto A. Davis, Carnegie Mellon University
  • Louis De Alessi, University of Miami
  • Arthur S. De Vany, University of California, Irvine
  • Thomas C. Deleire, University of Chicago
  • Henry G. Demmert, Santa Clara University
  • Stephen J. Dempsey, University of Vermont
  • Jeffrey Deutsch, George Mason University
  • Douglas W. Diamond, University of Chicago
  • Thomas J. DiLorenzo, Loyola College in Maryland
  • John L. Dobra, University of Nevada
  • Robert Dorfman, Harvard University
  • Richard M. Ebeling, Hillsdale College
  • Nicholas Eberstadt, American Enterprise Institute
  • Franklin R. Edwards, Columbia University
  • James R. Edwards, Montana State University-Northern
  • Frank Egan, Trinity College
  • John B. Egger, Towson State University
  • Isaac Ehrlich, State University of New York, Buffalo
  • Robert B. Ekelund, Jr., Auburn University
  • Jerome R. Ellig, George Mason University
  • Ward E. Y. Elliott, Claremont McKenna College
  • Kenneth G. Elzinga, University of Virginia
  • Edward W. Erickson, North Carolina State University
  • Gisela M. Escoe, University of Cincinnati
  • Paul Evans, Ohio State University
  • Roger L. Faith, Arizona State University
  • Frank Falero, Jr., California State College, Bakersfield
  • David I. Fand, George Mason University
  • Susan K. Feigenbaum, University of Missouri, St. Louis
  • David H. Feldman, College of William & Mary
  • Roger D. Feldman, University of Minnesota
  • Paul J. Feldstein, University of California, Irvine
  • Price V. Fishback, University of Arizona
  • Eric Fisher, Ohio State University
  • Arthur A. Fleisher, III, Metropolitan State College
  • Fred E. Foldvary, Santa Clara University
  • Andrew W. Foshee, McNeese State University
  • Marvin Frankel, University of Illinois
  • H. E. Frech, III, University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Claire Friedland, University of Chicago
  • Luke M. Froeb, Vanderbilt University
  • Joseph Fuhrig, Golden Gate University
  • Eirik G. Furubotn, Texas A & M University
  • Lowell E. Gallaway, Ohio University
  • Gary M. Galles, Pepperdine University
  • B. Delworth Gardner, Brigham Young University
  • Erik A. Gartzke, Pennsylvania State University
  • James F. Gatti, University of Vermont
  • David E. R. Gay, University of Arkansas
  • R. Richard Geddes, Fordham University
  • Gregory M. Gelles, University of Missouri, Rolla
  • John M. Geppert, University of Nebraska
  • Joseph A. Giacalone, St. John Õs University
  • Adam Gifford, Jr., California State University, Northridge
  • Micha Gisser, University of New Mexico
  • Fred R. Glahe, University of Colorado
  • Charles J. Goetz, University of Virginia
  • Stephan F. Gohmann, University of Louisville
  • Robert M. Goldberg, Brandeis University
  • Rodolfo A. Gonzalez, San Jose State University
  • David B. Gordon, Clemson University
  • Peter Gordon, University of Southern California
  • Richard L. Gordon, Pennsylvania State University
  • Henry G. Grabowski, Duke University
  • John D. Graham, Harvard University
  • Kenneth V. Greene, Binghamton University
  • Earl L. Grinols, University of Illinois
  • Timothy J. Groseclose, Stanford University
  • Gerald A. Gunderson, Trinity College
  • Alan Gunn, University of Notre Dame
  • James D. Gwartney, Florida State University
  • David D. Haddock, Northwestern University
  • J. Daniel Hammond, Wake Forest University
  • Steve H. Hanke, Johns Hopkins University
  • Ronald W. Hansen, University of Rochester
  • John R. Hanson, II, Texas A & M University
  • Scott E. Harrington, University of South Carolina
  • C. Lowell Harriss, Columbia University
  • Cary Heath, University of Southwestern Louisiana
  • Robert F. Hebert, Auburn University
  • Frank L. Hefner, College of Charleston
  • Robert H. Heidt, Indiana University
  • A. James Heins, University of Illinois
  • Eric Helland, Claremont Graduate University
  • Robert B. Helms, American Enterprise Institute
  • David R. Henderson, Hoover Institution
  • Gail L. Heriot, University of San Diego
  • William D. Hermann, Golden Gate University
  • Robert S. Herren, North Dakota State University
  • Robert Higgs, The Independent Institute
  • Pershing J. Hill, University of Alaska
  • Peter J. Hill, Wheaton College
  • George W. Hilton, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Melvin J. Hinich, University of Texas
  • Mark Hirschey, University of Kansas
  • Rodney F. Hiser, University of Alaska, Fairbanks
  • Irving J. Hoch, University of Texas, Dallas
  • Harold M. Hochman, Lafayette College
  • Gary L. Hodgin, Belmont University
  • Randall G. Holcombe, Florida State University
  • Dale M. Hoover, North Carolina State University
  • George Horwich, Purdue University
  • Steven G. Horwitz, St. Lawrence University
  • Douglas A. Houston, University of Kansas
  • Ronald A. Howard, Stanford University
  • John H. Howe, University of Missouri
  • James L. Huffman, Lewis & Clark College
  • Paul H. Hughes-Cromwick, University of Michigan
  • Lester H. Hunt, University of Wisconsin
  • Laurence R. Iannaccone, Santa Clara University
  • Sanford Ikeda, State University of New York, Purchase
  • Christopher R. Inama, Golden Gate University
  • Thomas R. Ireland, University of Missouri, St. Louis
  • R. Mark Isaac, University of Arizona
  • Joseph M. Jadlow, Oklahoma State University
  • Dennis W. Jansen, Texas A & M University
  • Gail A. Jensen, Wayne State University
  • Michael C. Jensen, Harvard University
  • D. Gale Johnson, University of Chicago
  • Dennis A. Johnson, University of South Dakota
  • Paul Johnson, University of Alaska
  • Michael A. Jones, Montclair State University
  • John F. Kain, University of Texas, Dallas
  • Edward J. Kane, Boston College
  • Edward H. Kaplan, Western Washington University
  • Jonathan M. Karpoff, University of Washington
  • David L. Kaserman, Auburn University
  • Jacqueline R. Kasun, Humboldt State University
  • James B. Kau, University of Georgia
  • George G. Kaufman, Loyola University
  • Barry P. Keating, University of Notre Dame
  • Donald S. Kenkel, Cornell University
  • Miles S. Kimball, University of Michigan
  • Jerry Kirkpatrick, California State Polytechnic University
  • Robin Klay, Hope College
  • Daniel B. Klein, Santa Clara University
  • David C. Klingaman, Ohio University
  • Charles R. Knoeber, North Carolina State University
  • Paul R. Koch, Olivet Nazarene University
  • Robert E. Kohn, Southern Illinois University
  • E. M. Kolassa, University of Mississippi
  • Marvin H. Kosters, American Enterprise Institute
  • Dan Kovenock, Purdue University
  • Melvyn B. Krauss, Hoover Institution
  • Michael I. Krauss, George Mason University
  • Robert Krol, California State University, Northridge
  • Lawrence A. Kudlow, Schroder & Company, Inc.
  • Melvin A. Kulbicki, York College of Pennsylvania
  • Timur Kuran, University of Southern California
  • J. Clayburn La Force, Jr., University of California, Los Angeles
  • David N. Laband, Auburn University
  • Everett C. Ladd, University of Connecticut
  • Vincent A. LaFrance, Messiah College
  • William E. Laird, Jr., Florida State University
  • Deepak K. Lal, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Dennis Lambert, Washington University
  • Val E. Lambson, Brigham Young University
  • Steven E. Landsburg, University of Rochester
  • Richard Langlois, University of Connecticut
  • Nicholas A. Lash, Loyola University
  • Robert Laurent, Loyola University
  • Gary S. Lawson, Northwestern University
  • Robert A. Lawson, Capital University
  • Phillip LeBel, Montclair State University
  • Dwight R. Lee , University of Georgia
  • Don R. Leet, California State University, Fresno
  • Kenneth M. Lehn, University of Pittsburgh
  • Kurt R. Leube, California State University, Hayward
  • Charles L. Leven, Washington University
  • Peter Lewin, University of Texas, Dallas
  • Dennis P. Leyden, University of North Carolina, Greensboro
  • Wesley J. Liebeler, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Stan J. Liebowitz, University of Texas, Dallas
  • Anthony K. Lima, California State University, Hayward
  • Jody Lipford, Presbyterian College
  • Luis Locay, University of Miami
  • Dennis E. Logue, Dartmouth College
  • John E. Lopatka, University of South Carolina
  • Edward J. Lopez, University of North Texas
  • James R. Lothian, Fordham University
  • William R. Luckey, Christendom College
  • Hugh H. Macauley, Clemson University
  • Paul W. MacAvoy, Yale University
  • Tibor R. Machan, Chapman University
  • Kerry Lynn Macintosh, Santa Clara University
  • Joseph P. Magaddino, California State University, Long Beach
  • Paul G. Mahoney, University of Virginia
  • Paul H. Malatesta, University of Washington
  • Michael T. Maloney, Clemson University
  • Yuri N. Maltsev, Carthage College
  • Stephen E. Margolis, North Carolina State University
  • Michael L. Marlow, California State Polytechnic University
  • William R. Marty, Memphis State University
  • Craig S. Marxsen, University of Nebraska, Kearney
  • Scott E. Masten, University of Michigan
  • Jonathan Mathys, DePaul University
  • John G. Matsusaka, University of Southern California
  • Thomas H. Mayor, University of Houston
  • George M. McCabe, University of Nebraska
  • Fred S. McChesney, Northwestern University
  • Deirdre N. McCloskey, University of Illinois, Chicago
  • Patricia Ann McCoy, Cleveland State University
  • Myra J. McCrickard, Bellarmine College
  • Robert W. McGee, Seton Hall University
  • Thomas Means, San Jose State University
  • James W. Meehan, Jr., Colby College
  • Roger E. Meiners, University of Texas, Arlington
  • David I. Meiselman, George Mason University
  • Lloyd J. Mercer, University of California, Santa Barbara
  • John D. Merrifield, University of Texas, San Antonio
  • Michael R. Metzger, University of Central Oklahoma
  • John R. Meyer, Harvard University
  • Robert J. Michaels, California State University, Fullerton
  • Jacob B. Michaelsen, University of California, Santa Cruz
  • Thomas P. Miller, Competitive Enterprise Institute
  • Geoffrey P. Miller, New York University
  • Merton H. Miller, University of Chicago
  • Raymond A. Miller, Southern University
  • Tracy C. Miller, Grove City College
  • James C. Miller, III, Citizens for a Sound Economy
  • David E. Mills, University of Virginia
  • Jeffrey D. Milyo, Tufts University
  • Jeffrey A. Miron, Boston University
  • William C. Mitchell, University of Oregon
  • Michael R. Montgomery, University of Maine
  • Carlisle E. Moody, College of William & Mary
  • Ronald L. Moomaw, Oklahoma State University
  • Thomas Gale Moore, Hoover Institution
  • John H. Moore, Grove City College
  • John C. Moorhouse, Wake Forest University
  • Paul L. Morgan, Westmont College
  • Michael A. Morrisey, University of Alabama
  • Andrew P. Morriss, Case Western Reserve University
  • Michael Valdez Moses, Duke University
  • Laurence S. Moss, Babson College
  • David W. Mulder, Northwestern College
  • Michael C. Munger, Duke University
  • Dennis D. Muraoka, California State University, Long Beach
  • Frank W. Musgrave, Ithaca College
  • David Mustard, University of Georgia
  • Thomas Nechyba, Duke University
  • George R. Neumann, University of Iowa
  • William A. Niskanen, Cato Institute
  • David J. O ÕHara, Metropolitan State University
  • Walter Y. Oi, University of Rochester
  • Lloyd D. Orr, Indiana University
  • Lydia D. Ortega, San Jose State University
  • Dale Osborne, University of Texas, Dallas
  • Evan Osborne, Wright State University
  • Attiat F. Ott, Clark University
  • Walton M. Padelford, Union University
  • William H. Page, Mississippi College
  • Jeffrey S. Parker, George Mason University
  • Allen M. Parkman, University of New Mexico
  • Terrance C. Parks , Indiana State University
  • Ernest C. Pasour, Jr., North Carolina State University
  • Judd W. Patton, Bellevue University
  • Chris Paul, University of Alabama
  • Gary M. Pecquet, Our Lady of Holy Cross College
  • Svetozar Pejovich, Texas A & M University
  • Sam Peltzman, University of Chicago
  • Larry C. Peppers, Washington and Lee University
  • Mark J. Perry, University of Michigan
  • Mary Bennett Peterson
  • William H. Peterson, Campbell University
  • Manferd Peterson, University of Nebraska
  • Wallace Peterson, University of Nebraska
  • Charles E. Phelps, University of Rochester
  • Charles F. Phillips, Jr., Washington and Lee University
  • William S. Pierce, Case Western Reserve University
  • Charles R. Plott, California Institute of Technology
  • Ivan Pongracic, Jr., Indiana Wesleyan University
  • Jeffrey Pontiff, University of Washington
  • Keith T. Poole, Carnegie Mellon University
  • Daniel O. Posin, Tulane University
  • Steve Postrel, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Barry W. Poulson, University of Colorado
  • Richard W. Rahn, Novecon Corporation
  • David D. Ramsey, Illinois State University
  • James B. Ramsey, New York University
  • J. Mark Ramseyer, University of Chicago
  • Elizabath L. Rankin, Centenary College of Louisiana
  • David W. Rasmussen, Florida State University
  • Robert K. Rasmussen, Vanderbilt University
  • Stephen J. Rassenti, University of Arizona
  • Douglas Rathbun, University of Texas
  • W. Robert Reed, University of Oklahoma
  • Joseph D. Reid, Jr., George Mason University
  • Robert W. Reinke, University of South Dakota
  • George G. Reisman, Pepperdine University
  • Alan Reynolds, Hudson Institute
  • Morgan O. Reynolds, Texas A & M University
  • Edward M. Rice, University of Washington
  • Barrie Richardson, Centenary College of Louisiana
  • James R. Rinehart, Francis Marion University
  • Shawn Ritenour, Southwest Baptist University
  • Mario J. Rizzo, New York University
  • Paul Craig Roberts, Institute for Political Economy
  • James D. Rodgers, Pennsylvania State University
  • Jerry K. Rohacek, University of Alaska
  • David C. Rose, University of Missouri, St. Louis
  • Nathan Rosenberg, Stanford University
  • Timothy P. Roth, University of Texas, El Paso
  • Simon Rottenberg, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
  • James A. Roumasset, University of Hawaii, Manoa
  • Patrick Rowland, Fordham University
  • Charles K. Rowley, George Mason University
  • Paul H. Rubin, Emory University
  • Randall R. Rucker, Montana State University
  • Roy J. Ruffin, University of Houston
  • Kevin D. Sachs, University of Cincinnati
  • Henry Saffer, Kean University
  • Charles D. Safley, North Carolina State University
  • Joseph T. Salerno, Pace University
  • Michael T. Saliba, Loyola University New Orleans
  • Gary J. Santoni, Ball State University
  • W. Phillip Saunders, Indiana University
  • David S. Saurman, San Jose State University
  • E. S. Savas, Baruch College
  • Thomas R. Saving, Texas A & M University
  • D. Eric Schansberg, Indiana University, New Albany
  • David Schap, College of the Holy Cross
  • Thomas C. Schelling, University of Maryland
  • David J. Schmidtz, University of Arizona
  • Mark Schniepp, Center for Regional Economic Growth
  • Anna J. Schwartz, National Bureau of Economic Research
  • Robert H. Scott, California State University, Chico
  • Gerald W. Scully, University of Texas, Dallas
  • Larry J. Sechrest, Sul Ross State University
  • Richard T. Selden, University of Virginia
  • Barry J. Seldon, University of Texas, Dallas
  • George A. Selgin, University of Georgia
  • John Semmens
  • Michael Sesnowitz, University of Vermont
  • Butler Shaffer, Southwestern University
  • Sol S. Shalit, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
  • Dennis G. Shea, Pennsylvania State University
  • Judy Shelton, Empower America
  • George B. Shepherd, Emory University
  • Stephen Shmanske, California State University, Hayward
  • Mark H. Showalter, Brigham Young University
  • William F. Shughart II, University of Mississippi
  • Barry N. Siegel, University of Oregon
  • Keith Sill, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
  • Randy T. Simmons, Utah State University
  • Gene R. Simonson, California State University, Long Beach
  • Neil T. Skaggs, Illinois State University
  • Mark Skousen, Rollins College
  • Gene Smiley, Marquette University
  • Rodney T. Smith, Stratecon Inc.
  • T. Alexander Smith, University of Tennessee
  • Vernon L. Smith, University of Arizona
  • Russell S. Sobel, West Virginia University
  • Lee C. Spector, Ball State University
  • David E. Spencer, Brigham Young University
  • Frank Spreng, McKendree College
  • Mark Steckbeck, George Mason University
  • Richard H. Steckel, Ohio State University
  • Alan C. Stockman, University of Rochester
  • Houston H. Stokes, University of Illinois, Chicago
  • Courtenay C. Stone, Ball State University
  • W. Craig Stubblebine, Claremont McKenna College
  • Ryan M. Sullivan, Economic Analysis, LLC
  • Daniel Sutter, University of Oklahoma
  • Shirley V. Svorny, California State University, Northridge
  • Charles Swanson, Temple University
  • Richard J. Sweeney, Georgetown University
  • Richard E. Sylla, New York University
  • Alexander T. Tabarrok, The Independent Institute
  • Thomas C. Taylor, Wake Forest University
  • Timothy D. Terrell, Liberty University
  • David J. Theroux, The Independent Institute
  • Clifford F. Thies, Shenandoah University
  • Henry Thompson, Auburn University
  • Mark Thornton, Auburn University
  • Richard H. Timberlake, Jr., University of Georgia
  • Robert D. Tollison, University of Mississippi
  • Mark Toma, University of Kentucky
  • Edward Tower, Duke University
  • George W. Trivoli, Jacksonville State University
  • George Troughton, California State University, Chico
  • Leo Troy, Rutgers University
  • Gordon Tullock, George Mason University
  • Charlotte Twight, Boise State University
  • Jon G. Udell, University of Wisconsin
  • Michelle A. Vachris, Christopher Newport University
  • James Van Beek, Blinn College
  • T. Norman Van Cott, Ball State University
  • Hendrik F. van den Berg, University of Nebraska
  • Karen I. Vaughn, George Mason University
  • Richard K. Vedder, Ohio University
  • Randal J. Verbrugge, Virginia Tech University
  • John M. Vernon, Duke University
  • Harry C. Veryser, Walsh College
  • Ronald J. Vogel, University of Arizona
  • Richard E. Wagner, George Mason University
  • Deborah L. Walker, Loyola University New Orleans
  • Stephen J. K. Walters, Loyola College in Maryland
  • Alan Rufus Waters, California State University, Fresno
  • Myles J. Watts, Montana State University
  • Carolyn L. Weaver, American Enterprise Institute
  • Lawrence H. White, University of Georgia
  • Murray L. Weidenbaum, Washington University
  • Marc Weidenmier, Claremont McKenna College
  • Roman L. Weil, University of Chicago
  • David L. Weimer, University of Rochester
  • Ivo I. Welch, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Robert O. Welk, Row Tek Economics
  • John T. Wenders, University of Idaho
  • Walter J. Wessels, North Carolina State University
  • Robert Whaples, Wake Forest University
  • James B. Whisker, West Virginia University
  • Richard William Wilcke, University of Louisville
  • Arlington W. Williams, Indiana University
  • Walter E. Williams, George Mason University
  • Paul W. Wilson, University of Texas
  • R. Mark Wilson, University of South Florida
  • Larry T. Wimmer, Brigham Young University
  • Mark P. Witte, Northwestern University
  • Michael K. Wohlgenant, North Carolina State University
  • Charles Wolf, Jr.,
  • Gary Wolfram, Hillsdale College
  • Christopher T. Wonnell, University of San Diego
  • William C. Wood, James Madison University
  • Jeffrey Wrase, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
  • Gene C. Wunder, Washburn University
  • Thomas L. Wyrick, Southwest Missouri State University
  • Bruce Yandle, Clemson University
  • DeVon L. Yoho, Ball State University
  • Yong J. Yoon, George Mason University
  • Andrew M. Yuengert, Pepperdine University
  • Edward E. Zajac, University of Arizona
  • Paul J. Zak, Claremont Graduate School
  • Mokhlis Zaki, Northern Michigan University
  • Asghar Zardkoohi, Texas A & M University
  • Steve Ziliak, Bowling Green State University
  • Michael Zimmer, University of Evansville
  • Louis H. Zincone, Jr., East Carolina University
  • Thomas S. Zorn, University of Nebraska
  • Benjamin Zycher, Cato Institute

Co-Sponsors of the Open Letter on Health Care Policy Reform

  • Association of American Physicians and Surgeons
  • Cancer Research Institute
  • Hispanic Business Roundtable
  • Independent Women's Forum
  • International Patient Advocacy Association
  • Liberty AIDS Education Foundation
  • National Kidney Cancer Association
  • National Taxpayers Union
  • Non-Commissioned Officers Association of the U.S.A.
  • Small Business Survival Committee
  • United Seniors Association



Please contact The Independent Institute for further information, including details on the new book, American Health Care
David J. Theroux is the Founder, President and Chief Executive Officer of The Independent Institute.